Moscow University

Not many books edited in the last decade are directly

devoted to social time (Yakovlev 1980;Akhundov 1982/1986;

Barg 1984; Gaidis 1986; Artyomov 1987; Serov 1989, 1990;

Gumilyov 1979/1989). However, there are studies close to

social subjects in historical chronology (Fomenko 1990),

general system theory (Sarychev 1981; Kandrashina et al.

1989; Levich 1989 a,b; Zhirmunski and Kuzmin 1990), logics

(Ishmuratov 1981), psychology of personality (Golovakha and

Kronik 1984; Bragina and Dobrokhotova 1988; Nalimov 1989) and

philosophy (Kazaryan 1980; Yarskaya 1980; Soldatov

1981;Akhundov 1982/1986; 1982; 1985; Kanke 1984;

"Prostranstvo i Vremia" 1984; Gachev 1987; Zharov 1987;

Trubnikov 1987; Kosareva 1988; I.Molchanov 1988; Suchkova

1988; Kardasheva-Ulyakhina 1990; Yu.Molchanov 1990). The

purpose of this overview is to indicate the intrinsic

connection between the problems of social time and the ideas

both from closely related disciplines and from natural


Trends in social time studies

Social time is traditionally understood as the time of

human existence and human activity. In the studies of the

eighties the tendencies showed themselves for deepened,

causal comprehension of the subject:

- The scientists (Serov 1990) gradually go further and

further from the understanding of social time as a resource

possessed by social objects and a measure of expenses in time

budget studies. They also abandon the conception of "the time

factor" which, in its uncritical and speculative

understanding, was endowed with a role of an almost mystic

objective factor, impersonal and acting as though outside the

specific conditions of social life.

- A world outlook is appearing which overcomes the

traditional absolute opposition between nature and society,

existence and consciousness; attempts are being undertaken to

create a bridge between the time of society and the time of

nature (Gumilyov 1979/1989).

- The ways of formation of the time concepts in

different cultures of the world have been thoroughly analysed

and the results generalized (Akhundov 1982/1986); it has

been shown how the evolution of social consciousness gives

rise to that of time concepts creating such conceptual models

of time as the oscillatory, cyclic, spiral and linear


- A decisive transition has been carried out from

synchronous to diachronous studies both in purely

sociological work (repeated questions, cohort analysis,

constant-contingent samples, introspection - Gaidis 1986) and

in much wider frames of the problems of nature and society

genesis and interaction (for instance, N.K.Serov's "process

treatment" - Serov 1990).

- More and more often social time acquires a separate

ontological treatment as the contents and measure of

generalized movement of social systems, by analogy with the

physical, biological, geological, geographic and other times

used in natural sciences (Levich 1989). Together with social

time ontologization, there is a growing tendency to take into

account psychological, subconscious, language roots of

scientific reconstructions of time images (Akhundov 1985).

- Attempts have been made, although not too numerous,not

to confine oneself to the description of social system

changing phenomena but to find fundamental laws governing

these changes.An understanding emerged that it is

inconceivable to search these laws without an instrument

measuring the changes and without explication of specific

time properties for the systems studied (Levich

1989).Therefore rather often questions are risen about

constructive characteristics of the specific social time: its

hierarchy properties, multicomponentness, irreversibility

(anisotropy), duration, sequence of its instants,

inhomogeneity and non-uniformity of its course (Yakovlev

1980). The necessity of "social chronometry" was realized

(Artyomov 1987), i.e., that of creating special "clocks" to

measure social time.

Properties of social time and social chronometry

V.P.Yakovlev (1980) introduced the hierarchy of social

times: the time of an individual, the time of a generation,

historical time. According to V.P.Yakovlev, social time turns

out to be three-dimensional and this property is determined

by the multicomponent nature of human activity. The "length"

is the duration of individual life in astronomical time units

and the irreversible succession of living cycle stages. The

"width" is an extensive quantity characterizing the quantity

and variety of the forms of human activity and the abundance

of an individual's connections with the surrounding world.

The "depth" is an intensive quantity determined by the level

and degree of involvedness of a person into his or her

activity. Multidimensionality of historical time was

emphasized by M.A.Barg (1984)while arguments in favour of

multidimensionality of individual time are systematically

reproduced by psychologists and biologists (Moiseyeva 1980,

1985; Golovakha and Kronik 1984; Mikhailovski 1989).

The problems of constructing specific clocks adequately

describing the processes of the corresponding subject fields

and, after this, constructing (instead of postulating) the

properties of time, manifest themselves certainly not only in

social studies. The most promising ways of solving such

problems are anticipated within general system theory. In one

of the system-theoretical approaches (Levich 1986, 1989 a)

time is treated as a synonym for changes in a certain system

and a clock as a way of measuring or parameterization of the

changes. It was suggested to unify the system variability by

postulating that it is possible to describe any change as a

superposition of substitutions of system elements at

different levels of its hierarchical structure. Such a

unification makes it possible to introduce substitutional

clocks suitable for a system of arbitrary nature: at

different levels of structure of a reference system one

should count the quantity of substituted elements. The system

substitutional time is multi component, discrete,

system-specific and non-uniform in its course. The

substitutional time construction creates an elementary object

for dynamic theories, a hierarchical, unclosed, open,

non-equilibrium one, suitable for description of object

fields of both natural-scientific and humanitarian knowledge.

Similar elements can also appear within theories based

on the Platonic picture of the world. One of such directions

is represented by Logos physics consistently developed in the

studies of S.V.Chesnokov (1982, 1987, 1990). From the

standpoint of Logos physics the world is a set of images

which can have both a material and a spiritual content. In

this theory time also turns out to be a synonym of

variability of many sense objects: the course of time is

determined by destruction of certain pairs of elementary

images and formation of other pairs.

The substitutional time construction is supported by

operational procedures of element counting in systems.

However, for complicated systems described by complicated

formal structures it appears necessary to generalize the

concept of quantity. One of such generalizations is the

functor method of structure comparison which unexpectedly

leads to the entropy time parameterization (Levich 1982, 1988,

1989 b). The entropy parameterization makes it possible to

formulate the extremality principle for natural systems,

generalizing the second law of thermodynamics to include open

and non-equilibrium systems. This principle enables one to

derive generalized system motion equations instead of

guessing them and, using the equations, natural system

evolution laws. I would like to mention one of the most

recent works (Kuznetsov 1990) where the second law of

thermodynamics serves as a prototype of a law of human

society development: the level of labour productivity is a

non- decreasing quantity in the course of humanity's history.

Psychological time of an individual

Individual time is apparently the time of consciousness,

not that of existence, however, essentially it is a social

phenomenon (Yakovlev 1980). Therefore sociologists should not

be indifferent to studies in the field of psychological time

and also the biological one.

In the cause-and-purpose conception of psychological

time (Golovakha and Kronik 1984) the latter is formed on the

ground of an individual's feeling of determinational

connections between the basic events of life. Side by side

with the causal determinacy of coming events by previous ones

(determination by the past), there exists determination by

the future, i.e., by purposes and projected results of life.

Causal and purpose connections are analytic units of personal

psychological time. A special method ("causometry") has been

developed for their empirical investigation. In causometry

there emerges a quantitative measure of individual time and

operational procedures appear which form psychological past,

present and future. This approach makes it possible to

understand the causes of possible divergence between the

physical and psychological times, it explains the mechanism

of experiencing psychological time extension and compression,

its multidimensionality and the phenomenon of psychological

rejuvenation of a person. A computer version of causometry

enables one to build chronological charts of a person's

living path.

A personality's individual time is also apparently

mediated by the brain functional asymmetry: the right

hemisphere functions in the present time supported by the

past while the left one functions in the present with an

appeal to the future (Bragina and Dobrokhotova 1981/1988).

A measure of a personality's psychological time can be

introduced in terms of the quantity of actions performed by

the person within a unit of astronomical time (Nalimov 1985,

1989). A person can change the rate of his intrinsic time

defined in this way quite consciously using sensor

deprivation (autotraining, meditation) in order to pass to

altered states of consciousness. Certainly the word "actions"

is used here to denote not only events "extrinsic" for the

personality but also changes in the state of consciousness

and impulses of semantic nature. Distinct definiteness of

senses and their great personal significance - that is what

accelerates the course of human time.

M.D.Akhundov (1982/1986, 1985) in his study of the

sources of physical space and time came to a conclusion valid

both for physical and for social knowledge, namely, that an

indispensable mediating link between the ordinary language

and the formal theoretical one is the empirical notion of

space and time. "It is also necessary to take into account

that the space and time imprinted in our language are not

fixed once and for ever but experience significant changes

with the development of our language and thinking... These

questions are very close to the psychological aspects of the

problem of space and time which begin to acquire more and

more urgency..." (Akhundov 1982, p.221).

The idea of a hardly exploratory role of human psychology

in the formation of scientific concepts is continued by

G.D.Gachev (1987, p.224): "... Space and Time are the forms

and categories of the Psycho-Cosmos anticipating the Logos of

mind... Between the Cosmos and Psyche there is a plot, a

language, a dialogue, mutual understanding and collusion -

behind the back of Logos, outside the mind."

Concluding the excursus into the studies of individual

social time, I would like to mention the construction of

social age which appeared in our literature (Gaidis 1986);

this construction includes biological, physiological,

psychological and material differences of individuals and

their family and professional cycles. The developments

concerning a person's biological age having a lengthy

pre-history (Voitenko and Poliukhov 1986; Pavlovski 1987;

Dubina and Orlova 1987) can turn out to be useful for the

construction of social age.

A bridge between social time and natural time

The frames of the overview make me pass from individual

time to the processes of historical time. The object of

greatest interest in social systems acting on the historical

scale, is an ethnos. It makes sense to appeal to the work

which gives not only new knowledge but is able to change the

reader's world outlook, i.e., possesses a quality very

unusual in the abundance of modern books. Although the first

edition of the book is marked by the year 1979, the readers

could really get acquainted with the work only by the second

edition of 1989 since the first edition was published only as

a deposited manuscript due to ideological censorship; it

got neither to libraries, nor to book trade, nor to

catalogues, nor to book surveys. We are speaking about

L.N.Gumilyov's (1979/1989) work "Ethnogeny and the Earth's


According to L.N.Gumilyov, the ethnos concept cannot be

reduced to either sociological, or biological, or geographic

phenomena. An ethnos is a natural phenomenon but it is not a

population or a sum total of equal individuals; it is a

system of individuals differing genetically and functionally

and includes also the products of their activity, i.e.,

technology. anthropogery landscape and cultural tradition.

Unlike the technosphere, the ethnosphere implies division of

human society connected not with social organizations (tribal

unions, feuds, states, theocracies, political parties,

philosophic schools, classes, estates, castes or

social-economic structures) but with languages, ideology and

culture, common origin and way of life. An ethnos is a

community of people appearing and decaying for a relatively

short time (about 1200-1500 years in any, even most

favourable conditions) but having in each case an original

structure, an unrepeatable behaviour stereotype and its own

rhythm of development. An ethnos has its own ages and

development stages changing according to natural laws for any

ethnos on the Earth. L.N.Gumilyov singled out the following

phases: the starting moment of birth, the rising phase, the

acmatic phase (that of maturity), the overtaxing phase, the

inertial phase, the obscuration phase and the memorial phase

(dispersion of an ethnos and its transformation to a relic).

Here is, for instance, L.N.Gumilyov's description of the

behaviour stereotype of the reactionary obscuration phase,

"twilight of an ethnos" (1989, p.419): "... there are people

uncreative and unindustrious, emotionally and mentally

defective but expressing rather high requirement to the life.

In heroic epochs of growth and self-display such individuals

have very little probability to survive. They are bad

soldiers, a null sort of workers, while criminal ways bring

them at severe times very quickly to a scaffold. However, at

mild civilization times, by common abundance of everything,

everyone can get a spare piece of bread and a woman.The

"life-lovers" (please forgive me such a neologism) begin to

propagate themselves unboundedly and, being "people of a new

mould", create their own imperative: "be the same as we are",

i.e., do not strive for anything which cannot be eaten or

drunk. Any kind of advance becomes something odious,

diligence is subject to mockery, joy of intelligence causes

fury. In art lowering of style occurs, in science original

works are supplanted by compilations, in public life

corruption becomes common, in the army soldiers make

officers and commanders obedient by the threat of revolt.

Everything is mercenary, there is nobody to believe, nobody

to rely upon; to conserve his power a government has to apply

robber-chief tactics: to suspect, trace and kill his


The order established at this stage.. can by no means be

called democratic... Abilities are not appreciated, their

absence is,ignorance instead of education, unscrupulousness

instead of firmness in opinions.

Different phases of ethnogeny are accompanied by


- 12 -

different sensations of time connected with different types

of dominating behaviour: passeism - continuation and

accumulation of past values; actualism - living by the

present day, embezzlement of inheritance; futurism - reality

of only dreams and, finally, statism - narrow-minded

ignorance of time.

The basic theme of L.N.Gumilyov's studies is directly

connected with the general problem of the nature of time and,

in particular, that of historical time. This theme is search

of causes of ethnogeny, i.e., causes of ethnos birth and

decline. The birth of an ethnos occurs at the expense of the

energy of a passionary impetus, all the subsequent

development is just expenditure and damping of this energy.

This is the kind of energy which exerts direct influence upon

human behaviour through their psychic sphere. Passionarity

(L.N.Gumilyov's term produced from Latin "passio", passion)

is an invincible aspiration for purposeful activity which is

always connected with environment change, either social or

natural. The energy of passionarity is that of the biospheric

living substance, the one described by V.I.Vernadski

(1863-1945) as biochemical energy. Passionarity is the

ability of an organism to absorb the environmental energy and

to produce it in the form of external work. Passionarity is

indicated by more active higher nervous processes compared

with those common for the species. In certain favourable

conditions the individuals endowed with passionarity commit

(and cannot help committing) deeds which, being summed, break

the inertia of tradition and initiate a new ethnos.

Passionarity is not an individual property, it is a group

one, since many passionaries are needed to manifest

themselves historically.

Ethnogeny is the system's passionarity loss: "... the

ethnogeny starting moment is that of sudden appearance of a

certain number of passionaries and subpassionaries in a

population; the rising phase is that of an increasing number

of passionaries due to propagation or incorporation; the

acmatic phase is that of maximum passionaries' number; the

overtaxing phase is the one characterized by a sharp decrease

of their number, their ousting by subpassionaries; the

inertial phase is that of slow decrease of the number of

passionary individuals; the obscuration phase is that of

nearly total replacement of passionaries by subpassionaries

who, due to certain peculiarities of their mould, either ruin

the ethnos as a whole, or have too little time to ruin it

before invasion from outside. In the second case a relic is

formed consisting of harmonic individuals and entering the

biocoenosis of the inhabited region as the upper completing

link." (Gumilyov 1979/1989, p.270). The processes of

passionarity fall and rise have been never and nowhere fixed

in documentary sources because they are apparent only in vast

juxtapositions of characteristics of epochs and countries,

i.e., this can be done only with the means of ethnology and

ethnic history.

L.N.Gumilyov's work is rather a rare example of a truly

system study of interaction of the social and natural forms

of matter motion. The passionarity doctrine is included into

the study only for filling the gap which had appeared due to

one-sided investigation of ethnogeny. It cannot replace the

teaching of primacy of social development in history, it can

just supplement it by natural-scientific data. Consciousness

turns out to be history's helm, not a motor.

A passionary impetus is preceded by a mutagenic moment

creating various displacements from the optimum. Irregularity

of the mutation process rate can sometimes explain some

creative energy pulsation phenomena (Golubovski 1988).

The passionarity impetus should have an energy supply;

since it seems not to be connected with terrestrial natural

and social conditions, its origin can be extraterrestrial.

L.N.Gumilyov finds some arguments showing that the source of

a passionary impetus is not only extraterrestrial but

originates "not from the Sun but from Galaxy's diffuse

energy..." In this aspect L.N.Gumiilyov's ethnogeny doctrine

shows clear connection with the views of the nature of time

which have appeared in system theory and astronomy.

Thus the substitutional approach mentioned before

introduces a general process of system element substitution

obligatory for all the natural systems. The problem of origin

of the overall process is solved in the following way: our

Universe is unisolated, open and non-equilibrium; the course

of time in the Universe is created by generating

substationary flows of pre-elements which cause alteration,

development of the world's objects and their

self-organisation (Levich 1989 a,b).

The idea of a generating flow is not new both in

philosophy and in natural science. There are grounds for

identifying the generating substationary flow with the "time

flow" introduced by Russian astronomer and naturalist

N.A.Kozyrev (1909-1983). According to N.A.Kozyrev, time is a

grandiose flow embracing all the material systems of the

Universe, and all the processes occurring in these systems

are sources feeding this overall flow (Kozyrev 1982, 1985;

N.A.Kozyrev's first papers on the "active" properties of time

appeared in 1948). N.A.Kozyrev's flow creates the course of

time, forms the causal connections in the world, provides

additional energy sources for astronomical objects and

removes the otherwise unavoidable homogeneous equilibrium

state of the Universe in the future. There is an

experimentally discovered influence of terrestrial and

external irreversible processes upon the mass, density,

elasticity, electric conductivity and other properties of

matter. The time flow is emitted and absorbed by irreversible

processes, creating an association with transition of

passionarity (by L.N.Gumilyov) from passionaries to impulsive

people, the influence decreasing with spacing and time

(Gumilyov 1989, p.267). The influence of the flow according

to N.A.Kozyrev, propagates with a velocity much greater than

that of light and provides determination by the future

(Kozyrev 1980; Kozyrev and Nasonov 1980). It should be

mentioned that these astronomical results have been

reproduced by modern researchers (Lavrentyev et al. 1990

a,b). Some results for gyroscopes similar to those of

N.A.Kozyrev's (1958) experiments have been obtained (probably

quite independently) by Japanese scientists (Hayasaka and

Takeuchi 1989); their results turned out to be hard to

reproduce, so it caused a scientific discussion so far

unfinished (Quinn and Picard 1990; Faller et al. 1990;

Nitschke and Wilmarth 1990). Some publications are appearing

on the role of "Kozyrev's flow" in the conception of life

(Danchakov and Eganova 1987; Levich 1991). It should be

pointed out that N.A.Kozyrev's views hardly agree with the

existing physical conceptions. The magnitudes of the measured

effects are small and, in principle, one can explain them by

more prosaic reasons than the influence of "the time flow."

However, so far there exists neither a consistent disproof of

N.A.Kozyrev's experimental results, nor their explanation by

usual physical factors, but there still remains a reasonable

doubt in the unambiguous of both the experimental data

interpretation and the theoretical conceptions. It can be

forecasted that in the coming decade the interest to

Kozyrev's ideas will be intensively developed and widely


Returning to historical time, one can discover that the

ideas of natural science are surprisingly similar to those of

L.N.Gumilyov (1979/1989) who believes that historical time

reveals itself via richness in events and the thing we call

"time" is the process of energy potential equalling which is

sometimes interrupted by shocks recreating the energy

potential inequality, i.e., the variety. Impulses appearing

in the anthroposphere due to these shocks are nothing else

but creative activity showing itself in aspiration now for

beauty, now for the truth, now for justice, now for power,

now for victory...

References to natural- scientific publications

There is a curious application of natural-scientific

methods to another problem of historical time, namely,

historical chronology (Fomenko 1990). Methods of applied

statistics were used in an analysis of chronicles and annals.

It was discovered that a "modern textbook" on chronology can

be obtained if one consecutively glues together four

practically identical "short chronicles" moved below (with

respect to their "original") approximately by 330, 1000 and

1800 years. In other words, one can assume that chronology

adopted at present was probably obtained from the "real" one

by dubbing and considerable lengthening. This work continues

the investigations of Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) and

Russian encyclopaedist N.A.Morozov (11854-1946).

Sociologists can find material for useful associations

in the book by A.V.Zhirmunski and V.I.Kuzmin (1990) where

quantitative laws are established for alteration of

evolutionary and spasmodic (critical) periods of natural

system development. Certain constants have been obtained

which determine a relation between consecutive critical

values of process characteristics.

Development of social time conceptions in 1980-1990 took

place along with enrichment of knowledge on time in biology

(Maurin 1980, 1982, 1986; Detlaf 1982, 1987, 1989; Prokofyev

et al. 1982; Smirnov 1982; Meyen 1983; Alyakrinski and

Stepanova 1985; Voitenko 1985; Zaguskin 1986; Dubrov 1987;

Putilov 1987; Mikhailovski 1989; Sharov 1989), geography

(Armand 1989), geology (Krasnov 1982; "Razvitiye ucheniya o

vremeni v geologii", 1982; Onopriyenko et al. 1984; Afanasyev

1987;Oleynikov 1987; Kosygin 1990; Simakov 1990), chemistry

(Yershov 1983; Komarov and Ryazanova 1984) and physics

(Kulakov 1980; Vladimirov 1982, 1984, 1987; Eganova 1984;

Logunov 1985; Pimenov 1987; Chernin 1987; Aristov 1989;

Arushanov and Korotayev 1989; Klimontovich 1989; Shikhobalov

1989; Novikov 1990).

Conference chronicle

I would like to draw the reader's attention to several

events of Soviet scientific life of the last decade which are

indirectly connected with social life studies and, as it

seems to me, created grounds for fruitful development of the

scientific thought in general for the coming years. At the

very end of the seventies in Leningrad the All-Union

Symposium on the Problems of Time in Psychology and Biology

was organized (Organizing Committee Chairperson

N.I.Moiseyeva); in 1980 Proceedings of this conference were

issued entitled "The Time Factor in Functional Organization

of Activity of Living Systems". In 1984 in Leningrad a

conference on the problems of time in arts took place

(Organizing Committee Chairperson O.I.Pritykina); in 1988 its

materials were published in a book entitled "Space and Time

in Arts". The All-Union School-Seminar "Analysis of Time

Constructions in Natural Science" (Organizing Committee

Chairman A.P.Levich) took place in 1988 near Moscow, the

school was organized by the constantly working

interdisciplinary Moscow Seminar on Time Studies in Natural

Science which acts in Moscow University from 1984; the

initiative group of the seminar prepared for publication the

book "Conceptions and Constructions of Time in Natural

Science". In 1990 in Leningrad the International Seminar

"Problems of Time in Cosmology: History and Contemporaneity"

took place (Organizing Committee Co-chairman A.V.Soldatov);

the materials of this meeting should be published soon.

Russian philosophy of the beginning of the century

in the period of glasnost

Concluding the overview, I would like to mention some

publications with which my contemporaries were able to get

acquainted only in late eighties, although I mean the works

of Russian social scientists and philosophers carried out as

early as at the very beginning of the century; for decades

these works were unaccessible for readers.

The importance of the four-dimensional sight not so much

in physics as in being, art, religion; the four-dimensional

images of the society and individuality; the temporal

thickness of objects; the four-dimensional completeness of

personality and the necessity of a complete four-dimensional

image of an elementary object of the society or the humanity

- that is what was told by P.A.Florenski (1988) in his

manuscript "Analysis of spatial vision in the works of fine

arts" written in the twenties.

In 1925 in a manuscript entitled "Essays of musical

aesthetics" A.F.Losev insisted on the necessity of time

phenomenology (Losev 1990). According to A.F.Losev, time is

not motion and not a measure of motion, it is not a thing and

not a psychic state, time implies existence of something

out-of-time, it implies the concept of number and its

embodiments. Time is creativity where not everything is given

at the outset, where each moment of the whole should be

conquered, created, fixed, consolidated. Time is a shapeless

set, an undistinguishiable and mobile continuity. It is

alogical and is possible only if there is an unknown future

in it, or the realm of chance.

S.A.Askoldov (1922/1990) taught that, since time means

changes, while the words "past, present and future" loose

their meaning outside consciousness, then time is, above all,

the state of a soul, while motion is time translated into the

language of space.

The time of history was the subject of N.A.Berdyaev's

(1969/1990) reflections; he asked, whether something

essential, penetrating to the deepest core of being, is

connected with time, or time is just a form and a condition

for the world of phenomena, and came to the conclusion that

the time of history is not a phenomenon, it is a noumenon.


AFANASYEV S.L. (1987) 'Geokhronologicheskaya shkala

fanerozoya i problema geologicheskogo vremeni' (Phanerozoic

geochronological scale and the problem of geological time).

Moscow: Nedra.

AKHUNDOV M.D. (1982) 'Kontseptsii prostranstva i

vremeni: istoki, evoliutsiya, perspektivy' ( Conceptions of

space and time: sources, evolution, prospects). Moscow:

Nauka. (1986) Conceptions of Space and Time: Sources,

Evolution, Direction. London: MATPress.

AKHUNDOV M.D. (1982 b) 'Prostranstvo i vremia v

fizicheskom poznanii' ( Space and time in physical cognition).

Moscow: Mysl.

AKHUNDOV M.D. (1985) 'Prostranstvo i vremia: ot mifa k

nauke' ( Space and time: from myth to science) / Priroda

(Nature), No.8; p.53-64.

ALYAKRINSKI B.S. and STEPANOVA S.I. (1985) 'Po zakonu

ritma' ( By the law of rhythm). Moscow: Nauka.

ARISTOV V.V. (1989) 'Vremia, sviazannoye so

statisticheskoy modelyu chasov' (Time connected with the

statistical clock model). Moscow: VINITI, No.7596-B89.

ARMAND A.D. (1989) 'Vremia v naukakh o Zemle' (Time in

the Earth science). Moscow: VINITI, No.7597-B89.

ARTYOMOV V.A. (1987) 'Sotsialnoye vremia. Problemy

izucheniya i ispolzovaniya' ( Social time. Problems of its

study and use). Novosibirsk: Nauka.

ARUSHANOV M.L. and KOROTAYEV S.M. (1989) 'Potok vremeni

kak fizicheskoye yavleniye (po N.A.Kozyrevu)' (The time flow

as a physical phenomenon (according to N.A.Kozyrev)). Moscow:

VINITI, No.7598-B89.

ASKOLDOV S.A. (1922) 'Vremia i ego preodoleniye' (Time

and its overcoming). Moscow: Mysl. Pp.80-83.

ASKOLDOV S.A. (1990) 'Vremia ontologicheskoye,

psikhologicheskoye i fizicheskoye' (Ontological,

psychological and physical time) / 'Na perelome'

(Filosofskiye diskussii dvadtsatykh godov: filosofiya i

mirovozzreniye' (At the turning point. Philosophic

discussions of the twenties: philosophy and world outlook).

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