© A.Zhuravel, 2003
The quantitative approach to time prevails in history as in so called exact sciences. Time for historians is simply one or another chronological scale, a tool to line up historical events and to state their succession. The question of time's qualities as of qualitative characteristics of every time section is mooted by historians only as a whole and at that the historical chronology absolutely disappears in their common discourses.
Meanwhile there is an opportunity to connect quantitative and qualitative aspects of the subject. In 1990-1991 I distributed the facts of so called "perestroika" (reconstruction) and then the main facts of Russian history from XV c. up to now in the days of Gregorian calendar. For that amendments in 9-13 days were added to Julian dates.
This distribution occurs irregular: there are some "clots" (2-4 days) where many significant events are gathered and some "empty" intervals poorly endowed with historical events. It is important that events in these "clots" can be easily characterized by 1-2 parameters.
All the data (about 5000 facts) are divided into 2 about equal parts named "Events" and "Life". The last part consists of days of birth and death of historical persons. Events are divided into "big" (3 points), "middle" (2 points) and "small" (1 point) according to their significance.
To weaken the influence of my own subjectivism I meaningly refrained from creation of a more varied scale and I was very careful about giving the highest point to the events. So 3 points received only 70 facts from about 2500 ones and most of them are well-known to every Russian schoolboy.
In Life all the dates of birth and death are estimated in 1 point. Some of them are also more or less important events and so they can receive 2 and even 3 points in the summary.
The problem of formalization of time's scale appeared during the data processing. The habitual division of year (365,25 days) into months is not convenient because of their different lengths. So I had to turn to the astronomical principle and to recalculate all the dates into the degree scale.
From astronomical viewpoint "day" is a section of the Earth orbit which it passes at the time of a complete rotation around its axis. It is a heliocentric view. From the heocentric point of view "day" is a section of the Sun ecliptics which it passes while the Earth does a complete rotation around its axis.
The recalculation of days into degrees gives an opportunity to notice once more phenomenon: "full" and "empty" clots are organized not chaotically but they mainly make together 90° and 180° angles. This rule is proved out by both Events and dates of birth and death.
So every four degrees create crosses in zodiac. And there is a correlation between them: if 2 or 3 degrees in a cross have extremely high rates the others usually can not get the middle level. These correlations either coincide absolutely or differ only per 1°. That is why I use the notions of cardinal, fixed, mutable crosses (taken from astrology): Aries (^), Cancer (a), Libra (d) and Capricorn (g) create the cardinal cross; Taurus (_), Leo (b), Scorpio (e) and Aquarius (h) - the fixed one; Gemini (`), Virgo (c), Sagittarius (f) and Pisces (i) - the mutable one.
The cross division is the main method of classification but not the unique one. We can see it in the graph of common distribution of Events and Life according to the degrees of 12 zodiacal signs. The point meanings vary: from 64 to 105 for Life at the middle level 82,47 (i.e. 28,86 % down and 27,32 % up), from 95 to 160 for Events at the middle 121,9 (i.e. 28,31% down and 31,26 % up). In general, lines of Events and Life co-ordinate each other very well: they give 1°'s shiftingin the rise phase in 3 cases (5-6, 11-12, 15-16°), antiphase - in 4 cases (2,11,16, 18°) and make agree in all the other cases. So the main peaks of the summary line occur the highest ones when the points meanings grow simultaneously (20, 25°) or one of meanings rises greatly (the same 5-6, 11-12, 25-26°).
However the summary data equalize their meanings noticeably. The less generalized data have much more facts of simultaneous rises and falls at the same degree: the middle meaning is often a result of summing of considerable antiphases. For example (Table 2), Capricorn has very low meanings both in Life and Events in 7 and 21°. On the contrary, Cancer is situated opposite Capricorn and have a rather high level at these very degrees but falls deeply in next 8 and 22°. The summary table shows a quite averaged result and advantage of 22 over 21° is created by Libra: this sign drops its meanings in 23 points (from 31 to 8)!
In general, the interrelation between signs in crosses may be characterized as interaction and resistance. Every sign conducts its own "policy" but takes into account actions of other signs. That's why there is a synchronism of 2 or 3 signs practically in every degree: they increase their figures and suppress the others which couldn't outdo their opponents. For example, Cancer and Capricorn rise together up to 26-22-25 points and so pull Libra down to 9 points in 10° Aries. But in the next 11° Libra rises up to 26 points with the help of Cancer which rise its rank from 22 to 23 and so Aries and Capricorn fall to 16-14 points. Sometimes a "parvenu" gets prevalence above all the others (Capricorn in 4°, Libra in 21°) but soon it drops deeply from the achieved height - higher rise, deeper fall. At the same time the contrast of rise and fall interchanges more characterizes Life than Events: the last ones sometimes draw their rises and falls out to 2-3° whereas Life usually makes it at once - in the next degree and immediately begins a new rise or fall. So its graph often looks like comb's teeth (7-12°, 18-24° Libra, 23-27° Capricorn, 10-14°, 19-23° Aquarius and etc.) as a result.
So degrees of zodiac (= days of Solar calendar) are not a scale which people have fabricated for their own convenience. This scale has some attributes which somehow influence on human history and are evidently causes why events take place at this but not that day.
The correlation between births and deaths is very interesting too. In general, their data show the better synchronism to each other in signs and crosses than data of Events. At that their peculiarity is the larger number of rises and falls from one hand and the bigger contrast their meanings from other hand.
Calculations show that number of degrees where one of figures exceeds the another on 3 or more points are almost half of sign (14 from 30°) in Aries and Libra and in general reach 40% in the cardinal cross. This correlation in 3 signs of the mutable cross (Gemini, Sagittarius and Pisces) is about a third and in general - 31,7%. Even the "passive" fixed cross is enabled on 28,33%.
At that these "contrast" degrees interact well with each other in crosses (create quadratures and oppositions, i.e. 90 and 180° angles) or adjoin each other (create conjunctions, i.e. 0° angle). Somehow 25° takes on special significance: 10 signs from 12 give contrast meanings and at the same time the prevalence births above deaths. It must be noted the fixed cross among them: the contrast of 3 its signs (Taurus, Leo, Aquarius) reach +5 and +6. But absolute records belong to 15° Cancer (12:0 in favour of birth) and 29° Sagittarius (1:11 in favour of death).
These and other extremely high and extremely figures practically exclude the opportunity of accidental mistakes and make us to think of these strange phenomenon.
Strange coincidences and approximations have been found. If they are taken in itself they can be regarded as insignificant chance but they are too much to think so. Therefore it is more correct to define them as manifestations of the same rule.
For example, days of birth and death of some people coincide or differ in 1° (1 day) from each other. 15 cases is found: almost of them are men of war or letter (in wide sense). It is interesting that these coincidences are not depend on circumstances of death. So general D.P. Neverovsky was wounded in the Leipzig battle in 1813 and died from gangrene. Sociologist P.A. Sorokin died a natural death in Winchester (USA). Historian N.M. Lukin and Hero of the Soviet Union V.M. Gordov died in prison. Dramatist A.V. Vampilov drowned at the age of 35 as a result of an accident. There is an analogy from medieval history: prince Dmitriy Mikhailovich Tverskoy was killed in the Golden Horde at the day of his birth (15.9.1298 - 15.9.1326).
2 great scientists, brothers Nikolay and Sergey Vavilovs, died in 26.1.1943 and 25.1.1951: the first - in prison, the second has a natural death.
2 participants of revolutionary Decembrist movement (M.A. Bestuzhev and I.I. Gorbachevsky) were born at the same day - 22.9/4.10.1800. A century later 2 Air Marshals (P.F. Zhigarev and A.A. Novikov) were born in 6/19.11.1900.
Famous Russian revolutionary S.G. Nechaev organized and took part in the murder of I. Ivanov who didn't want to submit implicitly to "the Committee", i.e. to Nechaev himself. It occurred in 21.11/3.12.1869. Nechaev was convicted to life imprisonment and died in the St. Peter and Paul's Fortress …21.11/3.12.1882.
It is possible to proceed from biographical facts to eventual history but it is impossible to get rid of quadratures and conjunctions. Here is 2 facts from the history of so called "Smuta" (Distemper) of XVII c.
I.I. Bolotnikov was captured by government forces in Tula in 30.6/10.7.1607 and surrendered at discretion in 1/11.10.1607. The angular distance between these dates is exactly 90°!
Poles captured the St. Trinity monastery in 1608. But why did they do it on 23.9/3.10, i.e. at the anniversary of death of its founder Sergiy Radonezhsky (25.9/3.10.1392)?
This general question may be divided into some subquestions.
1. What (days or degrees of zodiac) are the main elements of the chronological scale which generate historical events?
2. Is it possible to subdivide days and degree in order to find "chronons', quanta of time, their primary "bricks"?
3. What physical basis have days or degrees?
4. Historical events look like results of interaction of the Sun and days (degrees). But why do historical events take place sometimes but not every year when the Sun comes to this or that degree?
Neither history nor natural history can answer these questions. In modern science the nearest approximation to this theme is evidently A.L. Chizhevsky's approach [6,7, 11-13]. He discovered that patterns of sun's activity (~11, 1 year) correlate well to the dynamics of many historical processes of nature and social origins.
But this approach explains just processes but not concrete events taken place at this or that very moment. It cannot clear the riddle of facts' irregular distribution in the chronological scale.
However the analysis of the solar cycle is very important for solving the problem. The fact is that the cycle is not only the solar one. T. Landscheidt [2, 3] has shown that 11,1 years' cycle is formed also by 46 sidereal circuits of Mercury (11,079), 16 sidereal circuits of Venus (11,074), 6 sidereal circuits of Mars's (11,286) and 137 synodic circuits of the Moon (11,077). Furthermore 16 solar cycles (determined scientists from 176,32 to 178,72 years) correspond well to 6 sidereal circuits of Saturn (176,746 years), 15 sidereal circuits of Jupiter and to 5 kinds of synodic planets' conjunctions (Saturn-Jupiter, Saturn-Neptune, Saturn-Uranus, Jupiter-Neptune, Jupiter-Uranus). It means that all the Solar system but not the Sun only influence on the terrestrial historical processes. The sidereal cycles, i.e. planet's movements around the Sun, affect on the Earth by indirection by means of the Sun. The synodic circles which is originated from the viewpoint of a terrestrial observer demonstrate the direct influence of planets on the Earth.
Consequently the terrestrial time which is traditionally connected with the movement of the Sun around the Earth (or the Earth around the Sun) is not a result of this movement but of all the Solar system. The Sun is simply the main regulator of time which is being created by all the bodies which form this system.
It also means that astrology has a very serious basis: it traditionally studies movements of bodies of the Solar system and their influence on the human being in general and in particular. It is important that the described above phenomena are quite natural and obligate from the viewpoint of this "false science".
According to the astrological sight, every alive being (and the alive being named "Russia" too) has his own horoscope, i.e. the image of Solar system fixed at the moment of his birth from the place of the birth. In other words, it is a unique (never repeated) model of the Solar system where moments of circuits of planets around the Sun and of the Earth around their axis are fixed from viewpoint of the definite point on the terrestrial surface. The Sun, the Moon, all the planets and the main points of the coelosphere (marked in so called system of houses) are situated in some degrees of the zodiac at the every moment. So it creates a natal chart, a celestial analogy to the biological notion of genome. The further life of the Solar system and the Earth changes configurations of planets and form interrelations (aspects) between elements of the horoscope and transit planets. So considerable events in the life happen when some planets create some strong aspects with the natal chart at once.
The most important aspects in astrology are the same angles in 0, 90 and 180° which were marked in the analysis of "clots". Consequently these "clots" must appear at the places which form these aspects with elements of the real horoscope of Russia.
This rather schematic explanation seems to be much more capacious than what the academic science can offer instead of it. The gist of it is this approach makes time the main subject of research and considers it from the qualitative viewpoint. So astrology must be regarded not as a mystical tool for prognostics but as effective means of time study.
This approach has one more unobvious consequence. Every date is characterized not only by the position of the Sun in the zodiac but by the rhythms of all the planets of the Solar system. Although they are not entirely independent on the Sun they are unaffiliated members of the community named the Solar system. So the time in which we live is not only the Solar one but a symphony of many planetary rhythms and everyone of them has its own chronological scale. Therefore it is possible to find their influence on the human life from one hand and to correlate them with real chronological scales used by the mankind from the other hand.
We get accustomed to consider the lesser unit of time as a part of the bigger one: 1 minute is a part of an hour and of a day; 1 day is a part of a week, a month, a year and etc. But it is not so evident. For example, "week" and "month" are the notions of the lunar calendar which was used by all the peoples during the main part of their history and the adaptation of these notions to the Solar calendar is a result of rather late times.
So it is more correct to understand time units in their initial forms - as the unity of some "1" (Latin "unus" means "one"). That is all these "1" (as they are "1") are equal to each other: 1 second=1 minute=1 hour=1 week=1 month=1year=1 age. They act simultaneously and parallel but we can not catch them because at every moment we live actively only in one time and all the other rhythms change their dimensions according to logarithmical scale in our perception: the past looks like the lesser units (1 - 0,1 - 0,01 and etc.), the future - like the better units (1 - 10 - 100 and etc.). Then we put them on the "invariant" linear scale and gauge their real dimensions to Procrustean bed of the decadic system. But really decade is not the quantity of fingers on human arms but a base of the time logarithm and the measure of transition from one time to another. It can correspond to various figures according to the linear scale. I don't want to forestall but the traditional measures of time connected with figures 5, 7 and 12 most likely agree with the reality.
This approach is practically used in worked out in antiquity astrological techniques of directions and progressions and fully explains the well-known "subjective" perception: the time course quickens during our life. In reality, children live by the more slow rhythm than their parents and have much more time to learn the "foreign" language of grown-ups and so do it "quicker" than the last ones. But it is true only from viewpoint of grown-ups: they measure time of childhood by its own time scale and consider its dimension as a small part of their big life.
It is important to note that actual "logarithm" of time (acting in the Solar system in particular) have no meanings more than "3" in both sides from 0 (0,001; 0,01; 0,1; 0; 10; 100;1000). Further time condenses into "matter", "body", "clots" or, on the contrary, loses any flesh and looks like "spirit", "ether", "vacuum", "relict radiation" and other virtual constructs of classical and modern physics.
It has two main consequences. 1. So called "microcosm" and "macrocosm" are an optical illusion which emerges because of the prevailing linear conception of time and our inability to see directly the point of their transition to each other, i.e. to unite our looks in the past and in future. But if we transform so called the "time arrow" into a cycle (all the real time scale are cyclic!) we can see how two "opposite" directions meet each other in a some point.
2. V.I. Vernadsky emphasized that there were no proofs of origin of "the alive matter" from unalive one [1, 8, 9]. It is changed nothing from that time. And it is quite natural from this approach: "spirits" and "material bodies" look like unalive because they live too quickly or too slowly for us. Therefore there are no reasons to affirm that they are unalive in reality.
There are a lot of ways to the idea of a logarithmical time scale. I came to it in 1988-89 when I knew nothing of astrology and astrologer A.T. Mann who had expressed it in his works [4, 5]. It is unlikely that S.I. Sukhonos  knew about it when he put on the logarithmical scale all real and worked out by scientists space objects from virtual "maximon" (="plankeon", 10-33 cm) to "Metagalactic" (1028 cm) and found an alive cell (10-3,10-2 cm) in the center of the scale. Although he analyzes the space scale the close connection between time and space can hardly be disputed.
The phenomenon of time may be also analyzed by means of the fractal theory.
In any case this approach gives rich opportunities for studying. It would be very good to gather various scientists in a research center. Here is some the most important directions of activity:
- a research of the chronology of all countries by the described above methodic;
- a research of the history of astrology with the aim of including this discipline in the system of scientific knowledge;
- a creation of some applied astrological disciplines; most important of them are historical and biological astrology;
- a research of the correlation between notions of "genome" and "horoscope";
- a re-examinations of facts of chemistry and physics from this viewpoint;
- a working out of an adequate mathematical instrument based on real correlations of the Solar system.
Unfortunately, these nice dreams look like a wonderful fairytale in our sinful Earth. But the hope dies the last. A.L. Chizhevsky asked more than 70 years ago: 'Who dare say that the human thought will not return after some transformations to the initial philosophical conceptions which infected it at the beginning of human history?" [12: 505]. I'm sure that the time of these transformations has already come.
1. Vernadsky V.I. The Biosphere. New York: Copernicus, 1998.
2. Landscheidt Th. Cosmic Cybernetics. Foundation of a Modern Astrology. Aalen: Ebertin-Verlag, 1973.
3. Landscheidt Th. Sun-Earth-Man: a Mesh of Cosmic Oscillations. How Planets Regulate Solar Eruptions, Geomagnetic Storms, Conditions of Life, and Economic Cycles. London: Urania Trust, 1989.
4. Mann T. The Round Art of Astrology. A Logarithmical Time Scale // The Astrological Journal. 1981. Vol. XXIII. № 3.
5. Mann A.T. Life & Time Astrology. Shaftesbury: Element Books, 1991.
6. Tchijevsky A.L. Sun-spot and History // Bulletin of the New York Academy of Science. New York, 1928.
7. Tchijevsky A.L. Kosmische Einflusse, die Enstehung und Verbreitung von Massenpsychosen begunstigen // Deutsch-Russische Medizinische Zeitschrift. Berlin. 1928. # 3.
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12.Чижевский А.Л. Космический пульс жизни. Земля в объятиях Солнца. Гелиотараксия. М.: Мысль, 1995.
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