On the Way to Understanding the Time Phenomenon: the Constructions of Time in Natural Science. Part 1. Interdisciplinary Time Studies. Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong Kong: World Scientific. 1995. 201 pp.


Introduction. Motivations and Problems of Studying Time
A. P. Levich
1. Two images of time
2. Motivations of studying time
2.1. Deepening of special scientific concepts
2.2. Measuring the age of natural systems
2.3. Scientific forecasting
2.4. Manipulations with time
2.5. Time as a component of theoretical knowledge
3. The basic tasks of the studies of time
4. The properties and problems of time
4.1. The properties of time
4.2. The status of time
4.3. The problems of time
Chapter 1. Physics
Structure of Physical Space-Time
Yu. S. Vladimirov
Relative Statistical Model of Clocks and Physical Properties of Time
V. V. Aristov
1. About relative concept of time
2. The basic definitions of the model and obtaining the classical kinematic relationships
3. Obtaining the relationships of dynamics in the model
4. Effects due to the statistical character of the model and correspondence to the traditional theory
5. Relativistic generalization of the model
6. Properties of time and possible improvements of the model
Chapter 2. Biology
G. Backman's Conception of Organic Time and the Experience of its Application
A. M. Maurins
1. Presuppositions
2. The function of organic time
3. Quanta of life and temporal acceleration
4. Applications of Backman's function
5. Conclusion
Analysis of Meyen's Typological Concept of Time
A. A. Sharov
1. The concept
2. Principles of historic reconstruction
3. Problems of the typological concept of time
3.1. Object boundaries in space and time
3.2. Time and system interactions
3.3. Multi-dimensional nature of time
Biological Time, its Organization, Hierarchy and Presentation by Complex Values
G. E. Mikhailovsky
1. Biological time organization
2. The structure of the biological present and determinancy by future
3. Two-dimensionality of time in biological systems and the hierarchy of two-dimensional biological times
4. Presentation of two-dimensional biological time by means of complex values
5. The dynamics equation for open biological systems in complex time
6. Conclusion
Clocks for Studying Temporal Laws of Animal Development
T. A. Dettlaff
1. Biological measure of time
2. Application of the method of relative dimensionless characteristic of developmental duration for forecasting values of tn at varying temperature
3. Temporal patterns of development in poikilothermic animals
4. Heterochrony
5. Age of embryos and its significance for differentiation
Chapter 3. Mathematics
Mathematical Temporal Constructions
R. I. Pimenov
1. Introductory remarks
1.1. The place of the present work among others
1.2. Mathematical preliminaries
1.3. The concept of a set and our levels of consideration
2. Linear structures
2.1. Order type relations
2.2. Temporal interpretation of the examples
2.3. A self-contained temporal flow
2.4. Time in a universal
2.5. Event dating
2.6. Numerical dating: clocks
2.7. Point observers and frames of reference
2.8. Time transformations for a specific object
2.9. Constants with the dimensionality of time
3. Structures irreducible to linear ones
3.1. The simultaneity relation
3.2. Two examples for the simultaneity relation
3.3. A metric as a proper time interval
3.4. Time reversibility and irreversibility
3.5. The indicator space problem
3.6. A scheme of concept (object) derivation for the Einsteinian ordering
4. Causality and determinism
4.1. The differential equation ideology
4.2. The Cauchy dependence domain
4.3. Smoothness in space-time theory
4.4. Groundlessness of the determinism
Chapter 4. Earth Sciences
Time in The Earth Sciences
A. D. Armand
1. Geographic time
2. Matching the characteristic times
3. The conditional nature of time
Chapter 5. System Theory
Time As Variability of Natural Systems: Ways of Quantitative Description of Changes and Creation of Changes by Substantial Flows
A. P. Levich
1. Time-metabole
1.1. The substitutional construction of time
1.2. Properties of substitutional time
1.3. Substitutional motion
1.4. Difficulties of the substitutional approach
2. The entropy parametrization of time and the extremum principle for motion
2.1. Numbers of elements in structured sets
2.2. A category description of systems
2.3. The extremum principle as a law of variability
2.4. Example: a formula of species structure in ecology of communities
2.5. The substitutional, entropy and category time
3. The hypothesis of generating flows
3.1. The nature of the time flow
3.2. Elements of the picture of the world
3.3. Getting rid of the bugaboo of thermal Death
Time Structure of the World
V. M. Sarychev