**Preface****Introduction. Motivations and Problems of Studying Time***A. P. Levich*- 1. Two images of time
- 2. Motivations of studying time
- 2.1. Deepening of special scientific concepts
- 2.2. Measuring the age of natural systems
- 2.3. Scientific forecasting
- 2.4. Manipulations with time
- 2.5. Time as a component of theoretical knowledge
- 3. The basic tasks of the studies of time
- 4. The properties and problems of time
- 4.1. The properties of time
- 4.2. The status of time
- 4.3. The problems of time
**Chapter 1. Physics****Structure of Physical Space-Time***Yu. S. Vladimirov***Relative Statistical Model of Clocks and Physical Properties of Time***V. V. Aristov*- 1. About relative concept of time
- 2. The basic definitions of the model and obtaining the classical kinematic relationships
- 3. Obtaining the relationships of dynamics in the model
- 4. Effects due to the statistical character of the model and correspondence to the traditional theory
- 5. Relativistic generalization of the model
- 6. Properties of time and possible improvements of the model
**Chapter 2. Biology****G. Backman's Conception of Organic Time and the Experience of its Application***A. M. Maurins*- 1. Presuppositions
- 2. The function of organic time
- 3. Quanta of life and temporal acceleration
- 4. Applications of Backman's function
- 5. Conclusion
**Analysis of Meyen's Typological Concept of Time***A. A. Sharov*- 1. The concept
- 2. Principles of historic reconstruction
- 3. Problems of the typological concept of time
- 3.1. Object boundaries in space and time
- 3.2. Time and system interactions
- 3.3. Multi-dimensional nature of time
**Biological Time, its Organization, Hierarchy and Presentation by Complex Values***G. E. Mikhailovsky*- 1. Biological time organization
- 2. The structure of the biological present and determinancy by future
- 3. Two-dimensionality of time in biological systems and the hierarchy of two-dimensional biological times
- 4. Presentation of two-dimensional biological time by means of complex values
- 5. The dynamics equation for open biological systems in complex time
- 6. Conclusion
**Clocks for Studying Temporal Laws of Animal Development***T. A. Dettlaff*- 1. Biological measure of time
- 2. Application of the method of relative dimensionless characteristic of developmental duration for forecasting values of t
_{n}at varying temperature - 3. Temporal patterns of development in poikilothermic animals
- 4. Heterochrony
- 5. Age of embryos and its significance for differentiation
**Chapter 3. Mathematics****Mathematical Temporal Constructions***R. I. Pimenov*- 1. Introductory remarks
- 1.1. The place of the present work among others
- 1.2. Mathematical preliminaries
- 1.3. The concept of a set and our levels of consideration
- 2. Linear structures
- 2.1. Order type relations
- 2.2. Temporal interpretation of the examples
- 2.3. A self-contained temporal flow
- 2.4. Time in a universal
- 2.5. Event dating
- 2.6. Numerical dating: clocks
- 2.7. Point observers and frames of reference
- 2.8. Time transformations for a specific object
- 2.9. Constants with the dimensionality of time
- 3. Structures irreducible to linear ones
- 3.1. The simultaneity relation
- 3.2. Two examples for the simultaneity relation
- 3.3. A metric as a proper time interval
- 3.4. Time reversibility and irreversibility
- 3.5. The indicator space problem
- 3.6. A scheme of concept (object) derivation for the Einsteinian ordering
- 4. Causality and determinism
- 4.1. The differential equation ideology
- 4.2. The Cauchy dependence domain
- 4.3. Smoothness in space-time theory
- 4.4. Groundlessness of the determinism
**Chapter 4. Earth Sciences****Time in The Earth Sciences***A. D. Armand*- 1. Geographic time
- 2. Matching the characteristic times
- 3. The conditional nature of time
**Chapter 5. System Theory****Time As Variability of Natural Systems: Ways of Quantitative Description of Changes and Creation of Changes by Substantial Flows***A. P. Levich*- 1. Time-metabole
- 1.1. The substitutional construction of time
- 1.2. Properties of substitutional time
- 1.3. Substitutional motion
- 1.4. Difficulties of the substitutional approach
- 2. The entropy parametrization of time and the extremum principle for motion
- 2.1. Numbers of elements in structured sets
- 2.2. A category description of systems
- 2.3. The extremum principle as a law of variability
- 2.4. Example: a formula of species structure in ecology of communities
- 2.5. The substitutional, entropy and category time
- 3. The hypothesis of generating flows
- 3.1. The nature of the time flow
- 3.2. Elements of the picture of the world
- 3.3. Getting rid of the bugaboo of thermal Death
**Time Structure of the World***V. M. Sarychev*