Spring semester of 2002

Topic of the semester: **NATURE OF TIME**

*In our understanding, the "nature" of time is the mechanism of appearing changes and occurring newness in the World. To understand the "nature" of time is to point to its natural referent, i.e., a process, a phenomenon, a "carrier" in the material world whose properties could be identified or corresponded with those of time.*

*“ERVIN BAUER AS A CREATOR OF THE STABLE NONEQUILIBRIUM PRINCIPLE”.* G. P. AKSYONOV ().

**A. P. LEVICH** (). ** “GENERATING FLOWS AS A NATURAL REFERENT OF TIME”.** A development of the hypothesis on existence of generating flows in the World is proposed to listeners. The substance of the flows belongs to deep levels of the matter structure and, possibly, is not still identified with the modern experimental technologies. Our Universe is open for the generating flows. The “course” of time in the Universe is identified with its nonequilibrium with respect to the flows. A phenomenon of formation in the World can be parametrized by accumulating the substance of the flows. Matter in the form of fermions is sources and sinks of the substance of the flows. Charges and an interaction between nonliving and living matter are defined by dynamic characteristics of the generating flows in the sources and the sinks. Unification of the substances of the generating flows can be corresponded with the space of the World in which topologic and metric properties are induced due to the “propagation” of the substance of the generating flows from the sources or to the sinks. Time defined by the generating flows is irreversible (or reversible) in the same degree and sense as the generating flows are. In order to measure the variability of systems induced by the generating flows, we propose to count the number of replacements (substitutions) of elements in different levels of the hierarchical structure of the systems. The substitutional time of systems turns out to be discrete, multicomponent, nonuniversal; it admits existence of nontemporal events; its course is irregular. If variability of a system is defined by several generating flows, then a generalized entropy can be applied for counting the number of replacements of their elements. The entropy parametrization of variability returns the universal status to time and allows to use the phenomenon of formation as a universal extreme principle for a description of a generalized motion of systems. It is proposed to a careful listener to readdress the concept of the generating flows from the ontological domain to the epistemological methods of the description of time as variability of the World. (A.P.Levich. Generating Flows and Substantional Model of Space Time // Gravitation and Cosmology. 1995. V.1. ¹3 Pp. 237-242. See also materials of laboratory-chair "Modelling of the natural references of time")

*“NEW ITEMS IN THE SEMINAR LIBRARY”.* A. P. LEVICH ().

**A. V. KOGANOV** (). ** “THE APPARATUS OF FUZZY SETS AND INDUCTIONS IN MODELS OF TIME”.** The Gauge Classification of elementary particles is based on analysis of physical processes invariant groups. The Unified Field Theory Idea assumes the existence of a universal process which generates all other processes by phase transitions. The fuzzy Inductor Space Theory makes possible to consolidate all groups and group actions in uniform object of topological Complex type. In that Complex, a continuous transformation of any Inductor Group Action Image Algebra into other one is possible. In that transformation, the original Group goes through discrete row of other Groups and turns into Group which corresponds to the final Algebra under a continuous change of a deformation parameter. The connection between groups and processes permits to interpret the intermediate group as a probability process composite. There are several formalisms for mapping a group to the inductor algebra. In addition, the Fuzzy Inductions permit to formalize the hypothesis about the structure of the time sector in Space-Time which assumes a graduation for the property of object existence depending on 4-D event disposition with respect to the observer. It is possible to construct the correct relativistic equation of the heat conductivity in the integro-differential form. (A.V.Koganov. Processes and Automorphisms on Inductor Spaces // Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics. Vol 4. ¹ 3. 1996. Pp. 315-339.)

*“ONTOLOGY OF BÖHME AND SOME QUESTIONS OF TEMPOROLOGY”.* O. V. CHUMAK ().

**A. A. ZINOV'YEV.** ** “THE PROBLEM OF TIME AS A PROBLEM OF LOGIC”.** A new logical analysis of fundamental concepts of physics, in particular, those relating to time is proposed in the report. A solution of several important problems attracting attention of researchers during many centuries is given.

The announcement of the future report *“EVOLUTION AND SELF-ORGANIZATION”.* S. V. CHUDOV ().

**V. V. ARISTOV** (). ** “NOUMENON OF RELATIONAL TIME”.** According to the relational point of view, time is treated as a constructive notion which can be reduced to simple phenomenon elements. Studying a model of relational time implies studying a model of clock which is a complex theoretical construction. One have to distinguish time as a moment ("the present") and time as an continuance. A moment of time
or a state of time is represented in the model of clocks as "an ideal picture"
which holds information about spatial coordinates of all particles of the system
under consideration. The flow of time is considered in terms of a motion (displacements of many particles), which is represented by the sequence of "pictures". This sequence of time moments is related to the sequence of operational instructions which is appealed in fact to axioms of the set theory. The increment of time is defined through two close moments of the relational time. In the main equation of this relational statistical model the increment of time is expressed through a sum of increments of coordinates of all particles. The standard equations of special relativity are derived. Description of the unique moment of time by multi-coordinate parameters allows to introduce a notion of irreversibility of time itself. Thermodynamic quantities, in particular, entropy are also introduced. To develop the relational concept of space-time a model of rods is considered. The relational space is treated as a configuration of masses and a discrete geometry is studied. Quantum effects are deduced. By taking into account the relationships of the model of time, the characteristics of the force field are derived. Dimensionless description of this space-time model permits to consider a relation between physical postulates and mathematical axioms. In the time-noumenon concept, it is possible to study new constructions of the basic instruments (clocks and rods) and to consider new equations of motion. (Aristov V.V. Relative statistical model of clocks and physical properties of time // On the Way to Understanding the Time Phenomenon. Part 1. Singapore: World Scientific. 1995. Pp.26-45.)

**RONALD P. GRUBER** (Stanford University,
), **LAWRENCE F. WAGNER** (DSP Technologies), **STEVE MATTHEWS** (Lawrence Livermore Laboratories), **R. BLOCK**. * “SUBJECTIVE VERSUS PROPER (CLOCK) TIME” (PDF file, 173 Kb).* Beginning with Guyau in 1890, subjective time has been related to human information processing. It was felt that time is produced not by proper (clock) time but by the events that humans experience. Since then a few physicists have also come to believe that the appropriate measure of time is not necessarily proper time but the length of time it takes to process one bit of information. Because the temperature of the universe, and consequently human information processing rates are expected to fall drastically, they predicted that time for these sentients would pass extremely quickly (a year like minutes), but that increasing the total amount of information processed could prolong life duration. The physics prediction had no apparent relevance for humans in this epoch. However, as early as 1975, neuropsychologists also hypothesized that subjective time might be attributed, at least in part, to an aging induced decline in information processing rates. It had been known for some time that both information processing rates do fall slightly with aging and that the quick passage of time changes slightly as humans age. In an attempt to validate these hypotheses we analyzed the available data involving age associated information processing rates and retrospective time estimation studies. We also evaluated the meaning of using the total (lifetime) information processed as a measure of life's duration. Our findings support the hypothesis that the quick passage of time is at least in part, information-processing rate related. They also support the most profound theoretical implication of the physics hypothesis: that there are 2 ways to prolong longevity even in this epoch. One way is to survive as long as possible i.e. to increase proper time or chronological age. The other way is to look for a means to speed up thinking and experiencing - to increase the information-processing rate.

*“THE SCIENTIFIC WAY OF DMITRY IVANOVICH BLOKHINTSEV”.* B. M. BARBASHOV ().

**V. N. PERVUSHIN** (). ** “A QUANTUM FIELD THEORY OF GRAVITATION AND OBSERVATIONAL COSMOLOGY”.** In context of the relativity principle, the modern quantum field theory explains the creation and evolution of the Universe from the vacuum, the positive time arrow, the cosmic microwave background radiation, the distribution of chemical elements, the baryonic asymmetry, and the last data on supernovas (1998-2001).

*“AN ANALYSIS OF THE TIME CATEGORY IN THE SCIENTIFIC WORK OF H. POINCARÉ”.* L. N. LUBINSKAYA.

**V. M. SARYCHEV** (). ** “THREE CONCEPTS OF THE WORLD ARE THREE CONCEPTS OF TIME”.** The world in time and time in the world. Time in the ordered having become world. Dividing the time continuum into parts. Flowing time and time-duration. Diapasons of durations in which the world can be described as qualitatively definite. Hierarchy of differently scaled pictures of the world. Time in the becoming world (historical time). Traces of the past. Memory. (V.M.Sarychev. Time Structure of the World // On the Way to Understanding of Time Phenomenon. Part 1. Singapore: World Scientific. 1995. Pp.193-201.)

**I. N. GANSVIND**. ** “IRREVERSIBILITY”.** There are pairs of antinomical, complementary conceptions of time deeply rooted in the natural sciences and philosophy. Besides substantial and relational, static and dynamic conceptions the attributes of time themselves such as continuity - discreteness or reversibility - irreversibility are complementary. Each problem of time set-up is associated with some physical theory.
Conclusions concerning irreversibility or reversibility of time are determined by time horizon of a judgement about directedness of changes which passage of time is associated with. The time as result of a process is irreversible.

**R. F. POLISCHUK** (). ** “DIFFERENCES IN CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM SPACE-TIME”.** The general theory of relativity gives the modern picture of classical space-time which is incompatible with the quantum uncertainty principle. In this report, a hypothesis of the fluctuating space-time signature is proposed and the finitism principle is stated which excludes the physical reality of infinitesimal intervals of time and space.

The presentation of the book *“N. A. AGADZHANYAN, A. F. PCHELINOV. TIME IS A TISSUE OF A LIFE. MOSCOW, PARITET GRAF, 2001”.* A. F. PCHELINOV.

**M. H. SHULMAN** (). ** “ON THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF TIME, MOTION, AND MATTER”.** The natural concept of the Time. The nonstationary cosmological Einstein-Friedmann model. The static pressure of the gravitating matter. The Schwarzschild solution for a material sphere. New solutions of cosmological equations. The closed Universe. The Gravity and the conservation of energy. The time, the world lines and the particle motion. The Hubble law. An inertial motion and the Special Relativity. On the Einstein's Relativity Principle and the selected reference frame. The mass, energy at rest, and momentum of particles. The total energy of motion . On the remarkable experimental proof of the selected reference frame existence. On the radiation laws. New concepts of the quantum mechanics and nonlocality. The irreversibility and the cosmology. The irreversibility and the thermodynamics. The relations between the cosmological and thermodynamic irreversibility. (See also materials of laboratory-chair "Time as a phenomenon of the Universe expansion")

The announcement of the future report *“TIME IN THE SYSTEM OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES”.* A. S. CHUYEV ().

**A. A. ZOTIN** (). ** “DIRECTION, VELOCITY, AND MECHANISMS OF PROGRESSIVE EVOLUTION”.** Theory of progressive evolution based on thermodynamics of irreversible processes and data on animal standard metabolism is proposed. Own and literature data on oxygen consumption of animals from different taxons are presented. Based on these data, rate of evolution is calculated and possible macroscopic mechanisms of bioenergetic progress are considered. To characterize the progressive evolution the criterion of orderliness is used. This criterion characterizes a degree of deviation of living systems from equilibrium state. Increasing of effectiveness of thermoregulation, of relative brain size, of span life, etc. take places during progressive evolution. A hypothesis of existence of three heat barriers and ways of their overcoming during animal and mankind evolution is proposed.