Spring semester of 1996

Topic of the semester: **RESEARCH PROGRAMS OF TIME STUDIES:
FROM EINSTEIN TO PRIGOGINE**

**Yu. A. DANILOV.** **"TIME
MACHINE IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT PHYSICAL WORKS" ***(ON
THE BASIS OF THE PAPER BY J. EARMAN "RECENT WORK ON TIME
TRAVEL" // TIME'S ARROW TODAY. RECENT PHYSICAL AND
PHILISOPHICAL WORK ON THE DIRECTION OF TIME. ED. BY S. F. SAVITT.
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1995)".** *Most
philosophical works on the time machine problem emphasize the
causality reversal and paradoxes. Meanwhile, the causality
reversal is not essential for the most significant types of time
machines, and paradoxes just indicate "weak points" in
the understanding of what is physically possible. Really
important problems remain shaded. Following Mill, Ramsey and
Lewis, Earman elaborates on the problem of whether the physical
laws of the Worlds within the time machine reach are identical to
the laws of our World.

1) **M. Ye. GERTSENSHTEIN.** * "RESTRICTIONS
ON "TIME MACHINE" EXISTENCE IMPOSED BY GENERAL
RELATIVITY ". *There is a theorem: if (1) the
space-time of General Relativity admits a stationary metric (it
can have any, arbitrarily complicated spatial and topological
structure); (2) there is at least one observer whose personal
time agrees with the time coordinate (3) there are temporal loops
in the space-time (causality is violated), - then such a metric
is unstable. Consequences of this theorem for the Schwarzschild
metric and its possible generalizations to nonstationary metrics
are discussed. A physical interpretation of the results is
related to E. Noether's theory, according to which the energy
conservation law is valid in the case of a stationary metric. The
theorem proved forbids gaining energy either from the past or the
future.

2) **I. N. GANSVIND.** * "A REVIEW
OF THE BOOK "DREAMS OF A FINAL THEORY" BY S. WEINBERG
(N.Y.: PANTHEON BOOK, 1992)". *What is the
background for the belief that a unified field theory can be
constructed? What are the approaches that can lead to a future
unified theory? How the unified theory will contribute to the
conception of the World?

**I. M. DMITRIYEVSKY. *** "SYMMETRY
OF NATURAL LAWS AND ASYMMETRY OF OUR WORLD". *The
laws and equations that determine natural processes are specified
by symmetry, invariance under inversion transformations of matter
(C), space (P), and time (T). Violation of P-parity and then of
CP-parity (and thus T-symmetry), observed 40 years ago in weak
interactions, disagrees with the above rule. So far the mechanism
of these symmetries violation is not clear. We propose a new
model of weak interactions free of violation of the parity
conservation law. In this theory spontaneous weak decays and
parity violation are induced by a resonance interaction with the
a relic neutrino-antineutrino pair. To verify the hypothesis, an
experiment is proposed, based on the prediction of a new effect,
a dependence of the beta-decay rate on the relic neutrino
density. The observed possibility of the influence of relic
radiation on natural phenomena is viewed as an alternative
approach to the analysis of the effects explained by N.A. Kozyrev
in terms of the influence of "the course of time".
"The time paradox" can be resolved by the assumption
that there is a world with a reverse direction of the arrow of
time (similar to a C-antiworld). (I.M. Dmitriyevsky.
Cosmophysical correlations in the animate and inanimate nature as
manifestations of weak interactions. Biophysics, Vol.37, 4, 1992,
pp. 674-680.)

**M. B. MENSKY.** * "TIME AS A
RESULT OF SELF-MEASUREMENT OF THE QUANTUM UNIVERSE". *Quantum
cosmology is underlied by the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which lacks
a time parameter. Such a form of the equation results from the
closed nature of the Universe but causes the problem of time:
temporal evolution of the Universe is originally absent in
quantum cosmology. It well agrees with the spirit of quantum
mechanics which originally lacks classical characteristics of
motion, such as trajectories. Classical characteristics arise,
however, as a result of a measurement (observation) of a quantum
system. Similarly, a classical geometry is brought about by a
self-measurement of the Universe. And time emerges as one of the
characteristics of classical geometry. In this picture a
self-measurement is a measurement of the geometric degrees of
freedom of the Universe, while the part of a measuring device is
played by material degrees of freedom. (M.B. Mensky. Time in
quantum cosmology from the self-measurement of the Universe //
General Relativity and Gravitation. 1991,, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp.
123-128. M.B. Mensky. Continuous Quantum Measurements and Path
Integrals. Bristol and Philadelphia: IOP Publishing, 1993.)

**G. I. SHIPOV.** * "A NEW
CONCEPTION OF TIME IN THE THEORY OF PHYSICAL VACUUM". *In
the theory of physical vacuum a new metric arises, connected with
angular variables. A physical interpretation of this metric in
terms of a nonrelativistic approach can be given in the form of
the existence of three times. It demonstrates a deep involvement
of Kozyrev's ideas dealing with the "course" of time in
the theory of physical vacuum. Changes in the course of time turn
out to be related to the rotational motion of matter, that is why
varying the rotation, we can change the course of time. As an
actual example we consider a model of a four-dimensional
gyroscope, demonstrating a connection between the translational
and rotational motion of the mass center; this provides a
possibility "artificial" changes of the course of time.
(Preprint VENT, 1995, No. 64 Preprint of the International
Institute for Theoretical and Applied Physics. 1995, No. 1. G.I.
Shipov. The theory of physical vacuum. Moscow: NTcenter, l993, in
Russian.)

**A. P. LEVICH.** * "TIME AS A
DERIVATIVE OF MATTER OR ENERGY" .* In the
scientific description of the world there is an evident conflict
between the time reversibility of the fundamental physical laws
and the formation phenomenon in nature, that is, an unconditional
distinction between the past, present and future in the world of
real processes. Recent attempts to solve "the paradox of
time" result in the necessity of abandoning the concept of
isolation of systems characterized by the formation phenomenon,
and in particular the concept of the closed Universe. For open
systems "the nature" of time phenomenon turns to be
rather trivial: the course of time is created and parametrized by
fluxes of energy and matter in whose respect the system is not
isolated. The concepts of natural references of time suggested by
Kozyrev, Prigogine and others are discussed. (N.A. Kozyrev.
Selected works. Leningrad: Leningrad University Press, 1991 (in
Russian). I. Prigogine and I. Stengers. Time, chaos, and quant.
Moscow: Progress, 1994. K. P. Butusov. Time as a physical
substance // Time-Space problems in modern natural science /
Problems in the Study of the Universe, Issue 14, Leningrad, 1990,
Pp. 301-311 (in Russian). A.P. Levich. Time as variability of
natural systems: ways of quantitative description of changes and
creation of changes by substantial flows // On the Way to
Understanding the Time Phenomenon: the Constructions of Time in
Natural Science. Part l. Interdisciplinary Time Studies. World
Scientific, 1995, Pp.149-192.)

**V. P. MAIKOV.** * "COSMOLOGICAL
TIME AND EVOLUTION OF A MATERIAL MEDIUM (A MACRO-QUANTUM
APPROACH)".* The thermodynamic equilibrium
state in classical (static or dynamic) terms, in a strict sense,
does not really exist since the evolution of the discrete
space-time metric spontaneously lowers the temperature and
entropy of material medium in any state (energy
"inflation"). This is one of the consequences of the
macroquantum approach. Though under normal conditions the
inflation rate is insignificant this effect is crucial for time
intervals on the cosmological scale. Another conclusion of
fundamental significance is the predicted existence of an
ultimate thermodynamic state of a material medium on the Planck
scale (a singular state of the physical vacuum). Near the Planck
temperature the inflation rate of the space-time curvature radius
is extremely high (a virtual "Big Bang"). These
conclusions allow one to view the global evolution of material
media within the framework of thermodynamic balance in its
refined formulation, that is, taking into consideration the
macro-quantum and general relativistic effects. The proposed
approach, being a macrolevel theory, leads logically to solving
the problems of the contiguous (mega) level.

**Yu. A. BAUROV.** * "ON THE
STRUCTURE OF PHYSICAL SPACE AND A NEW INTERACTION IN
NATURE". *A new conception of the observed
physical space formation from a finite set of one-dimensional
discrete objects, named byuons, is proposed. It is shown why the
observed space is three-dimensional; the matter density in the
Universe and the Galaxy magnetic field magnitude are estimated;
the origin of the relic microwave background is explained; the
masses of elementary particles and the constants of the existing
interactions are estimated, etc. The elementary particle masses
are proportional to the modulus of a cosmological vector
potential. In this connection, it has been assumed that a new
interaction exists in nature, induced by the decrease of the
cosmological vector potential at the expense of the vector
potential of a magnetic system. Experiments carried out at the
Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, the Institute of General
Physics and Central Research Institute of Mechanical Engineering
have confirmed the existence of a new interaction, which has
given a basis for the design of engine and generator models using
the physical vacuum energy. The proposed space structure model on
the basis of byuons allows to approach an understanding of the
human mental process, since it discovers an absolutely new
communication channel unifying all the objects of the Universe
into a single information field. (Yu.A. Baurov. Physical Thought
in Russia, 1994, No. 1, p. 18 (in Russian). Yu.A. Baurov, E.Yu.
Klimenko, S.I. Novikov. Phys. Lett., 1992, A162, P. 32. Yu.A.
Baurov, B.M. Seryegin, A.V. Chernikov. Physical Thought in
Russia, 1994, No. 1 P. 1.)