Spring semester of 2004

Topic of the semester: **20 YEARS OF SEMINAR ACTIVITIES. CONSTRUCTIONS OF TIME IN NATURAL SCIENCE. SELECTED WORKS**

*"20 YEARS OF SEMINAR ACTIVITIES. COMMENTS".* A. P. LEVICH ().

**S. E. SHNOL** (). ** "FACES OF TIME".** Each instant has its own look. Time is not identical. What is a phenomenon of macroscopic fluctuations? How can corresponding laboratory experiments change our fundamental ideas of reality?

*"20 YEARS OF SEMINAR ACTIVITIES. COMMENTS".* A. V. KOGANOV ().

**V. V. ARISTOV** (). * "RELATIONAL STATISTICAL SPACE-TIME AND DESCRIPTION OF PHYSICAL INTERACTIONS".* A theoretical scheme "numbers-particles-space-time" is constructed by means of the relational statistical approach. Possible connection between physical postulates and the mathematical axiomatic apparatus is considered. Dimensionless physical description with introducing the fundamental constants allow us to obtain a traditional description on the basis of the physical dimensional values. A method for derivation of equations for interaction of particles is presented. Expressions for gravitational and electromagnetic potentials are deduced. A conformity of the microscopic and the macroscopic descriptions ("the cosmological coincidences") is suggested on the basis of statistical relationships of the theory. (V.V.Aristov. On the relational statistical space-time concept // The Nature of Time: Geometry, Physics and Perception. Eds. R.Buccheri et al., NATO Science Series II. Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Vol. 95, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2003, p. 221-229.)

*"20 YEARS OF SEMINAR ACTIVITIES. COMMENTS".* V. M. SARYCHEV ().

**A. V. KOGANOV** (), **M. I. GRAEV.** ** "CONSTRUCTING A SPACE OF GEOMETRY-LIKE STRUCTURE ON THE BASIS OF UNIVERSAL ALGEBRA".** The traditional geometrical spaces correspond to the certain kind of algebras: linear and affine. Characteristic property of such spaces is matroidal or semimodular structure of their subspaces. Besides those subspaces are subalgebras of the appropriate algebras. It is possible to define structure similar to subspace structure, on considerably wider class of algebras from a general category of universal algebras. The complete description of this class does not exist for the present. But there are interesting examples of non-standard geometries of such a kind. They can become a basis of new mathematical models in various sciences. (Graev M.I., Koganov A.V. Geometrical and Topological Structures Related to Universal Algebras. R.J.M.P., v. 10, ¹ 1, 2003, pp. 57-91.)

*"20 YEARS OF SEMINAR ACTIVITIES. COMMENTS".* I. M. DMITRIEVSKY ().

**A. D. ARMAND.** ** "DUALISM OF TIME".** The time fulfils two functions in our everyday life. It serves for measurement of duration of events and ascertainment of their sequence. The possibility of such use corresponds to a dual nature of the time itself. Time-duration (according to A.Bergson) is complementary to time-sequence. The possible error of detection of the duration decreases, and error of detection of sequence increases proportionally since we enlarge the unit of time measurement (the indistinguishability unit). The "t" symbol has different meanings in classical physical equations and in thermodynamic postulates, or in evolution theory. The property of duration and property of sequence do not exist one without another. The time disappears in extreme positions when the error of duration reaches zero and the error of sequence became equal one or the reverse. Both human activity and objective processes of the material world occur in many "temporal worlds" which differ one from another by their indistinguishability units. While accepting the dual nature of the time we are able to solve some problems and paradoxes of chronosophy, for instance Zeno's aporias.

*"A CYCLE".* I. N. GANSVIND.

**A. P. LEVICH** (). ** "A SEARCH FOR LAWS OF VARIABILITY IN THEORETICAL NATURAL SCIENCE".** In the report, we will try to answer the following questions. Which field of knowledge is related to creation of fundamental equations of motion, development, evolution?.. Is it science or art? What are ways of generating the fundamental equations (or, in general formulation, laws of variability)? Since equations of motion are description of variability of an object under study with the help of variability of a standard called a clock, it is possible that the equations can be obtained by analysis of ideas concerning the origin and parametrization of variability i.e., ideas concerning the nature and measurement of time. What is the nature of time? Analysis of questions about the nature of time, space, motion, matter interaction, etc., which accompanies the search for the fundamental equations, usually leads to modification of the conceptual basis of science or, in other words, to construction of a new "World picture". Which genre is related to creation of the World picture? Since one of the ways to obtain the laws of variability is formulation of extremum principles, what is extremal for natural or anthropic systems? A quantitative description of objects under study is necessary for formulation and application of extremum principles and for measurement of variability. Since the unique way of the formal description of the World is a selection of suitable mathematical structures, the question "What is quantity?" solved in the theory of sets without a structure arises again for sets with the structure. (See the works of the author in the Library of Electronic Publications of the Institute).

*"ON A SUPPORT OF PROJECTS CONCERNING THE CREATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATIONAL, COMPUTATIONAL, AND TELECOMMUNICATIONAL RESOURCES BY THE RUSSIAN FUND OF FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH".* O. A. PLECHOVA.

**V. A. GOLICHENKOV.** ** "BIOGENETICAL LAW AND MECHANICS OF DEVELOPMENT".** The ontogenesis is considered as a "modus vivendi" of multicellular organisms (Metazoa). The main ways of ontogenesis' organization are discussed as 1) mosaic way and 2) regulative way. By consideration of regulative way the special attention is paid to embryonic induction as a basic way of ontogenesis' control. Some features of mosaic are detected while embryonic induction process. It is attempted to understand the balance of regulative way and mosaic one in process of embryonic induction by examples of biodiversity. The mechanics of development can be considered as an approach for understanding the cause of ontogenesis during the preliminary evolution of Eukariota (Protozoa biodiversity). It is can also help to find out some prototypes of mosaic and regulative ways of ontogenesis. The regulative way has it's own prototype in complicated sequence of Volvocidae by palintomical breading and the mosaic one - in the structure organization of some Infusoria. The mosaic and regulative ways of ontogenesis are compared each to other and conclusions about some features of "biological time" in ontogenesis are drawn.

*"ON A REPRINT OF THE BOOK "KNOWLEDGE AND FALLACY" BY ERNST MACH".* YU. S. VLADIMIROV ().

**V. V. KASSANDROV** ()**. "MULTIVALUED FIELDS, PRIMORDIAL LIGHT AND THE TIME FLOW".** An exceptional algebro-geometrical structure leads to complexified
eikonal as a fundamental physical field, and to a correspondent congruence of light-like rays. We assume that this flow of primordial light ("preLight") gives rise to the whole physical matter in the World at the points of self-intersection of the rays, i.e. on caustics, and is also responsible for the perception of physical time. Naturally multivalued structure of the complex-valued eikonal field defines then the structure of both the preLight and the Time flows as a
superposition of a great number of (locally independent) constituent "subflows", so that the time turns to be locally "multidirectional". Some physical predictions of the theory are considered. (See the works of the author in the Library of Electronic Publications of the Institute).

An announcement of the future report *"SUBJECTIVE TIME".* I. A. KHASANOV ().

**M. H. SHULMAN** (). ** "TIME AS A PHENOMENON OF THE UNIVERSE EXPANSION".** Introduction. Non-stationary cosmological model of Einstein-Friedmann. Is it correct to ignore the static pressure of matter? A new solution of the cosmological equations. The closed Universe. A basic hypothesis of the new time nature. The motion and maximal speed in the new theory. The new theory and Minkowski geometry. On the Einstein's relativity principle. The particle mass, and energy, and momentum. The new theory and General Relativity.

*"MARINA TSVETAYEVA AND TIME".* ZOYA ZHURAVLYOVA ().

**A. M. OLOVNIKOV** (). ** "A NEW THEORY OF THE AGING AND THE CONTROL OF BIOLOGICAL TIME".** Existence of the intranuclear organelles responsible for the monitoring and the control of the flow of intrinsic organismal time in human brain is postulated. (A.M. Olovnikov. The redusomal hypothesis of aging and the control of biological time in individual development. Biochemistry (Moscow), (in English). 2003, V. 68. Issue 1. Pp. 2-33.; A.M. Olovnikov. Redusomal aging: comments. Advances in gerontology (SPb), (in Russian). 2003. V. 12. Pp. 28-45).

An announcement of the future report *"A METHOD OF INVESTIGATION OF TIME FLOWS RESPONSIBLE FOR A VALUE OF MACROSCOPIC FLUCTUATIONS OF ENERGY AND A PHENOMENON OF FRACTALITY".* V. G. VANYARKHO ().

**S. M. KOROTAEV** (). ** "FORECASTING EFFECT OF MACROSCOPIC NONLOCALITY".** The long-term experiments have revealed forecasting effect of macroscopic nonlocality. It manifest as advanced transaction of practically insulated dissipative processes, that confirms early Kozyrev's results. The processes of variations of self-potentials of weakly polarized electrodes in the electrolyte correlates with the solar and geomagnetic activity. Advancement equals about one and half month. Nonlocal character of correlation has confirmed by violation of Bell-type inequality. Forecasting applications are possible. (S.M. Korotaev, V.O. Serdyuk, V.I. Nalivayko, A.V. Novysh, S.P. Gaidash, Yu.V. Gorokhov, S.A. Pulinets, Kh. D. Kanonidi. Experimental estimation of macroscopic nonlocality effect in solar and geomagnetic activity// Physics of Wave Phenomena. 2003. V. 11. N 1. P. 46-54).

An announcement of the future report *"GRAVITY AS A PROJECTION OF A COSMOLOGICAL FORCE".* I. A. URUSOVSKY ().

**A. M. ZASLAVSKY** (). ** "HYPOTHESIS OF NON-SIMULTANEITY".** Our physical ideology is based upon limited set of axioms. These are axioms of thermodynamics, classical and relativistic physics, quantum mechanics and electromagnetism. From them mathematically physical laws of our universe follow. To the question, what the reason of physical laws is, the scientific physicist has the right to answer - the physical axioms. If it were possible to reduce all known physical axioms to one in it, probably, it would be spoken about source of all physics laws. However, the science cannot point to such axiom, nowadays. Nonetheless, there is one such hypothesis, which is implied in any of known physics theories in obvious or implicit form. It is the hypothesis of the simultaneity. According to it our universe, as the system concerning some subsystem of the observer, is submitted by state set of simultaneous of the many observable subsystems. The classical mechanics attributed to simultaneity absolute character. The relativistic physics, considering simultaneity relational, nevertheless, recognizes its status as conceptual base of space concept as receptacles of the simultaneous states of the many observable objects - subsystems. From the mathematical point of view the hypothesis of simultaneity means recognition of non-strict order on the state set. In additional, mutual equivalence of some states concerning the time order of their following, demands introduction in initial axiomatic researched system of the special attitudes. For example, algebraic, geometrical, or others, but distinguished from the attitude determining their order following in time. It initially brings unremovable dualism in axiomatic physics base, resulting to the formulation necessity, at least, two kinds, and axioms are not reduced one to another for an explanation of the physical phenomenon.
It is offered to refuse this hypothesis in favour of hypothesis of non-simultaneity alternative to it. According to the alternative hypothesis all system states "our universe" are non-simultaneous and, hence, ordered strictly (linearly). The attitude of the time order, at such approach, remains the only thing in initial definition of system. It, at least, in the conceptual plan eliminates the dualism interfering to the association of physics laws.
The task of association all physical principles in connection with refusal of the hypothesis non-simultaneity is methodologically alternative to that way on which there was up-to-date physics in the creation of great association theories. Instead of development of universal mathematical model of physical reality it is offered to remove the reason of logic dissociation physical principles, rooted in our ideas about time. But that there was an interest to such job of scientific community, confirmations of its productivity are necessary at least in some directions. Namely this purpose is pursued by the given report. There are some results received by the author stated in it, in particular: mathematical model of the observer in the world where there is no simultaneity, substantiation of the axiomatic of special and general relativity, generalization of the principle of least action and substantiation of axiomatic calibration fields similar to electromagnetic field. The approach to substantiation of own abstract three-space dynamic system is stated.