Spring semester of 1998
Topic of the semester: TIME IN THE OPEN AND NONLINEAR WORLD
Opening of sessions of the semester.
S. P. KURDIUMOV. "TEMPOWORLD CONSTRUCTION LAWS". Space-time relation in nonlinear dissipative structures. Analogues of the 2nd law of thermodynamics for open dissipative systems. Discreteness, localization and coevolution of structures. Connections between space and time in invariant-group solutions. interaction between the past, present and future. Laws for the construction of complexity. A superposition principle for tempoworlds. (A.A. Samarsky, V.A. Galaktionov, S.P.Kurdiumov, A.I. Mikhailov. "Peaking Regimes in Problems for Quasilinear Parabolic Equations". Moscow, Nauka, 1987 (in Russian); T.S. Akhromeyeva, S.P. Kurdiumov, G.G. Malinetsky, A.A. Samarsky. "Non-Stationary Dissipative Structures and the Diffusion Chaos". Moscow, Nauka, 1992 (in Russian); a series of articles in the book "Science, Technologies and Computational Experiment". Moscow, Nauka, 1993 (in Russian); a series of articles in the book "News in Synergetics. Enigmas of the World of Non-Equilibrium Structures". Moscow, Nauka, 1996 (in Russian); E.N. Kniazeva, S.P. Kurdiumov. "The Anthropic Principle in Synergetics". Voprosy Filosofii, No. 7, 1997 (in Russian).)
Review of the literature. A. P. LEVICH.
S. P. KAPITSA. "THE COURSE OF HISTORICAL TIME AND GROWTH OF THE WORLD POPULATION". The lecture is devoted to studies of the Earth's population growth. The demographic data show that, since the advent of man, the world population is growing proportionally to the squared full number of people. This indicates that Humanity behaves as a dynamical system subject to an overall interaction. This mechanism of self-similar growth incorporates all factors of biological, technological, economical, social and cultural nature. The nonlinear system interaction leads to accelerated growth, which has resulted in the present demographic transition epoch and stabilization of the world population in the predicted future. An analysis of the growth shows that the historical system time has been passing non-uniformly, squeezing as it approached the transition. This law can be traced back to the very beginning of Humanity's development. Thus, the Lower Paleolith epoch has been million years long, the Middle Ages lasted thousand years, whereas nowadays great changes in the world happen in a decade. The non-uniform course of historical time and the synchronism of large stages of world development have been pointed out by anthropologists and historians, and an explanation of these phenomena should be sought in the explosive growth dynamics of the planet's population. (S.P. Kapitsa. "Phenomenological Theory of the Earth's Population Growth". Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, 1996, v. 166, No.1.)
Review of the literature. I. N. GANSVIND.
A. A. SHAROV. "TIME AND SEMANTIC CLOSURE". Formal constructions of time are models of our subjective perception of causality which is useful for our activity. The idea of time coincides with the idea of usefulness, and usefulness coincides with life. Our models of time expands to the past far beyond the origin of life, but the idea of time has originated simultaneously with life. Time is a self-consistent organization and is characterized by a semantic closure (Pattee 1995). Semantic closure means that the activity of a system enhances the same activity in the future. The complexity of life increased via the process of metasystem transition (Turchin 1977) which adds new hierarchical levels. As the activity of living systems was becoming more diverse, each kind of activity obtained its own causality and hence its own time. The initial proto-time became differentiated; for example, space became distinguished from time. The ability of organisms to compare various processes resulted in the idea of average time for a set of processes. Then, it has been possible to compare the rates of individual processes. According to biosemiotics, life is communication and organisms are messages to next generations that bear information on how to survive and to reproduce. Since time is intrinsically related to life, it is also closely related to communication. For example, the inability to send messages to the past is a fundamental feature of any model of time.
Announcement of a future lecture "EVOLUTION AND INVOLUTION". A. D. ARMAND.
G. G. MALINETSKY. "THE CONCEPT OF TIME FROM THE STANDPOINT OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. RIVERBEDS AND JOKERS". Modern nonlinear dynamics provides a new outlook of motion, development, change, of the prediction problem and also, apparently, of time itself. In order to understand how the behaviour strategies change, to design prognostic computer systems, to construct simple models for complicated phenomena, to create a bridge from stringent to soft modelling, one needs something different from Newton's or Bergson's description of the reality. One needs another approach, depending on the situation, purpose and observer, on the phase space domain where the action takes place. This outlook, to be discussed in the lecture, has been reflected in the recent theory of riverbeds and jokers. (G.G. Malinetsky. A series of articles in the book "News in Synergetics. Enigmas of the World of Non-Equilibrium Structures". Moscow, Nauka, 1996 (in Russian); G.G. Malinetsky. "Chaos. Structure. Computer Experiment." Moscow, Nauka, 1997 (in Russian); S.P. Kapitsa, S.P. Kurdiumov, G.G. Malinetsky. "Synergetics and Prognoses of the Future" Moscow, Nauka, 1997 (in Russian);G.G. Malinetsky. "From Homo Sapiens to Homo Ludenus". Znaniye-Sila, 1998, No. 4 (in Russian).)
Announcement of a future lecture "AN EXPERIMENT TO VERIFY THE EXISTENCE OF THE KOZYREV INTERACTION IN NATURAL PROCESSES". S. M. KOROTAEV.
K. V. SIMAKOV. "DYNAMIC AND STATIC TIME". The time of physics and biology. The time of geology and archeology. The laws of thermodynamics. The problem of measuring the static time. (K.V. Simakov. "An Essay on the History of `Re-Discovery of Time'". Vestnik RAN, 1995, v. 65, No. 6; K.V. Simakov. "A. Bergson's Theory of Concrete Time". Vestnik RAN, 1996, v. 66, No. 1; K.V. Simakov. "Real Time in the Natural-Scientific Picture of the World". Vestnik RAN, 1997, v. 67, No. 4; K.V. Simakov. "Measurement of Time". Vestnik RAN, 1998, v. 68, No. 2.)
"NATURAL-SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO THE EVOLUTION OF STATE MACRO-INSTITUTES AND THE CIVIL SOCIETY". Yu. Yu. FIGATNER.
A. K. GUTS. "THREE PRINCIPLES OF TIME AND RESTORATION OF THE PAST". Can the Past be restored? Poincare and Costa de Beauregard showed that the past is not restored statistically. This follows from the Bayes formula. It is a myth that history can do this and, moreover, that just this is the purpose of history. A historian is sure that he or she is free for such work. In this mythological world there live not only historians, but all people. The fear of death is a cause of such confidence. Three Principles of Time have been formulated, saying that historians cannot give us the true textbook of History of any society. 1. Restoration of the Past can be performed only in the case when the a priori probabilities are known, i.e. if some knowledge about the Past is assumed, the knowledge of the Present can only improve it (the Bayes-Costa de Beauregard Principle). 2. The smaller is the time period of a historical event under study, the greater is the historical uncertainty, i.e. there are more contradictory details (the description uncertainty principle). This principle acts only provided the Principle of Interaction of Epochs is realized: 3. The historical uncertainty is greater when the epoch under study is farther from the present epoch. Mathematical models of these Principles are discussed.
Announcement of a future lecture "EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF TIME". V. V. SMOLYANINOV.
V. V. ARISTOV. "INTRODUCING THE IRREVERSIBLE TIME IN THE RELATIVE STATISTICAL MODEL" . A generalization of the relative model proposed previously is considered. The notion of "a clock equipped by memory" is introduced. A mathematical formula for the new time interval is defined. In contrast to the time interval corresponding to the readings of classical clocks, the value of the new time interval can be equal to zero ("a backward course of time"). However, the probability of this event is negligible due to statistical relationships in a system with a large number of particles. New dynamical equations are discussed. A connection between the expressions of the model and the postulates of thermodynamics is discussed. The concept of the arrow of time is treated on the basis of the model relations. (V.V.Aristov. "Statistical Model of Clocks in Physical Theory", Doklady Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1994, V.334. No.2; V.V.Aristov. "A Relative Statistical Model of Clocks and he Physical Properties of Time", in: "On the Way to Understanding the Time Phenomenon: the Constructions of Time in Natural Science. Vol. 1. Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong-Kong: World Scientific. 1995. Pp.26-45.)
"THE LOGARITHMIC LENGTH SCALE AND A MODEL OF NATURAL EVENTS". D. L. KIRKO.
V. V. KASSANDROV. "IRREVERSIBLE FIELD DYNAMICS ON THE BASIS OF THE EXCEPTIONAL ALGEBRA OF QUATERNIONS". We show that the generally adopted field equations, such as the Maxwell, Yang-Mills or Einstein equations, may be considered as identities following directly from some primary field dynamics. This predynamics should be nonlinear, over-defined as well as T- and P-noninvariant. Quantization of particle characteristics, in particular, the electric charge, follow then on a purely classical level. As a model for predynamics, we suggest a natural nonlinear generalization of the Cauchy-Riemann equations to the non-commutative quaternion algebra, thus manifesting a revival of Pithagorean ideas on the crucial role of Numbers in the Universe. (V.V.Kassandrov, "Algebraic Structure of Space-Time and Algebrodynamics". Moscow, People's Friendship Univ. Press, 1992 (in Russian); V.V.Kassandrov, "Biquaternionic Electrodynamics and Weyl-Cartan Geometry of Space-Time", Gravitation and Cosmology. V.1, No. 3, 1995, pp. 216-222.)
"THE INFORMATION-MATHEMATICS PARADIGM AND THE ARROWS OF TIME". M. I. SHTERENBERG.
I. M. DMITRIEVSKY. "THE RELIC RADIATION IS CARRIER OF TIME". There is no "time" without interaction. And it is not by chance that N.A. Kozyrev came to the idea of a time flow as a cause of interactions. But to the ambiguity and weakness of this cause it is perceived as an imaginary one. Recently (April 1996) I already spoke of the magneto-resonance mechanism of weak influence and about the new model of weak interactions in nuclear physics. This model has allowed one not only to restore the fundamental parity conservation law, but also to establish a fundamental role of the cosmic microwave (relic) radiation. According to the hypothesis, resonant absorption of the neutrino components of the relic radiation is the reason for "spontaneous" radioactivity, nuclear fusion in the Sun and other interactions. This eliminates a contradiction between the viewpoint of N.A. Kozyrev, that a source of stellar energy is the time flow, and the one adopted by modern astrophysicists, that its source is nuclear fusion. According to our hypothesis, these two statements are not contrary, but rather complementary to each other, if the time flow is understood as the relic radiation flow. The solar terrestrial correlations established by A.L. Chizhevskii, cosmophysical correlations and fluctuations according to S.E. Shnol et al. are explained by the influence of the appropriate components (carriers of 4 fundamental interactions) of the relic radiation. The dynamics of The relic radiation, specified by the motion of stars and planets which absorb it, determines periodic changes in the biosphere and noosphere - "the relic-ecology". The hypothesis under consideration reveals some properties and solves some problems of time. From the standpoint of our hypothesis it is also possible to create a new approach in formulating the causes underlying the fundamental principles of modern physics: the uncertainty principle and the relativity principle. (I.Dmitrievskiy, Biophysics, V. 37, No. 4, 1992, pp. 575-580; I. Dmitrievskiy, Consciousness and the Physical Reality, V. 1, No. 4, 1996 (in Russian),pp. 43-47.)
"ON THE BOOK BY KARL G. YUNG "SYNCHRONISM" (Refl-book. Wackler. 1997)". A. V. MOSCOVSKY.
M. H. SHULMAN. "THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF TIME". The conservation laws in physics. (Noether's theorem. The uncertainty principle and the tunnel effect. The energy conservation principle and the "Big Bang" of the Universe.) The Einstein-Friedmann cosmological model. (The geometric model and physical background. Basic equations. Collisions.) The physical meaning of the cosmological constant. (Einstein's arguments and the Poincare's reasons. The true physical meaning of pressure at rest and its calculation with Newton's law of gravity.) Revision of the space-time concept. (The new time concept. Hubble's law. Motion. The Lorentz transformation. The experimental anisotropy of the relic background radiation.) Energy, momentum and mass of particles. (The real existence of de Broglie waves. Mass as a quantum number. The Lorentz transformation for mass and geometry.) The Universe as an "energy pump". (Why we can observe the expansion of the Universe. The mass and energy increase with time. A correlation with Kozyrev's ideas.) New cosmology. (A new solution to the Einstein equations. Uniqueness of the solution. An independent way of deducing the basic equations. Accounting for the gravitational horizon. Comparison of the real and gravitational radii of the Universe.) The time arrow. (The cosmic time. The thermodynamic and psychological time arrows.) Non-locality and determinism. (Space and time in quantum mechanics. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. Modification of the causality principle. Modern experiments.) (M.H.Shulman. On the Physical Nature of Time. Moscow, Gazprom, 1997 (in Russian).)
"HAWKING AND PENROSE ON QUANTUM GRAVITY AND THE NATURE OF SPACE AND TIME" (S. HAWKING AND R. PENROSE. THE NATURE OF SPACE AND TIME. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS. 1995.). I. N. GANSVIND.
S. E. SHNOL, E. V. POZHARSKI, V. A. KOLOMBET, I. M. ZVEREVA, T. A. ZENCHENKO, A. A. KONRADOV. "ON THE DISCRETENESS OF MEASURED TIME SERIES FOR VARIOUS PROCESSES RESULTING FROM COSMOPHYSICAL FACTORS". Biochemical and chemical kinetics, the electrophoretic mobility of cells and particles, water protons cross-relaxation time, neon lamp discharge time, earth crust vibrations and the in tensity of radioactive decay of different isotopes were measured by suitable methods. As a result of long-term measurements (during 1955-1997) of fluctuation distributions, the hypothesis on the existence of universal cosmophysical "force" was put forward. At each moment this force determines the current spectrum of discrete admissible states of natural processes (the form of appropriate histograms). Performing the measurements at different locations (in Pushchino, Moscow, Leningrad, Tomsk, on the White Sea coast and aboard in the Pacific and Indian oceans) it was shown that the form of the appropriate histograms changes there simultaneously. The "lifetime" and the periodicity of a specific form seems to exist: in a series of subsequent histograms, a given histogram is most probably similar to the nearest neighbours and repeats after 24 hours, 27 days and about 365 days. The regularity of histogram shape dynamic and their similarity in the measurements of processes different nature at different geographical locations form the evidence for the existence of a common cosmophysical (cosmogonic) source of the phenomena under consideration. (Russian Journal of Chemistry, 1997, No. 3, p.30.)
Announcement of a future lecture "THE TIME OPERATOR". V. G. BUDANOV.
V. L. TATKO. "TIME: INNER REALITY OR ABSTRACTION? PERSONAL TIME, TIME IN PSYCHOLOGY AND NEUROSCIENCE". A crisis in neuroscience at the end of the century: features, causal nexus, genesis and consequences. The problem of time in psychology and neurophysiology. The experience in estimating time intervals, data and interpretation. Time in natural languages. The verbs that describe relative motion of objects inside the personal space ("the moving verbs"). Constants of personality, inborn and gained in practice. An attempt of personal space description. J. Gibson's ecological approach. Tatko's 3-dimensional model of time: time-reflection, time-memory and time-imagination. Restoration of the basic terms in building a new psychology, creating new definitions. Consciousness, prognostic activity, intuition. Examples in psycho-pathology: false recognition, confabulations, anxiety. Personal time properties: discreteness and locality. How the model works: spatial dimensions in "The Egyptian Book of the Dead". The worlds of Plotinus, I.V. Goethe, Thomas Mann, Marcel Proust. The "Mirror" movie by Andrei Tarkovsky. The conception of multiple sources of brain timing (the "multiprocessor metaphor"). Background streams of cons ciousness. Time as an attribute. The criterion of a "double-positioned" observer. Claims on possessing the time.