Spring semester of 1998

Topic of the semester:** TIME IN THE OPEN AND NONLINEAR WORLD
**

*Opening of sessions of the semester. *

**S. P. KURDIUMOV.** * "TEMPOWORLD
CONSTRUCTION LAWS". *Space-time relation in
nonlinear dissipative structures. Analogues of the 2nd law of
thermodynamics for open dissipative systems. Discreteness,
localization and coevolution of structures. Connections between
space and time in invariant-group solutions. interaction between
the past, present and future. Laws for the construction of
complexity. A superposition principle for tempoworlds. (A.A.
Samarsky, V.A. Galaktionov, S.P.Kurdiumov, A.I. Mikhailov.
"Peaking Regimes in Problems for Quasilinear Parabolic
Equations". Moscow, Nauka, 1987 (in Russian); T.S.
Akhromeyeva, S.P. Kurdiumov, G.G. Malinetsky, A.A. Samarsky.
"Non-Stationary Dissipative Structures and the Diffusion
Chaos". Moscow, Nauka, 1992 (in Russian); a series of
articles in the book "Science, Technologies and
Computational Experiment". Moscow, Nauka, 1993 (in Russian);
a series of articles in the book "News in Synergetics.
Enigmas of the World of Non-Equilibrium Structures". Moscow,
Nauka, 1996 (in Russian); E.N. Kniazeva, S.P. Kurdiumov.
"The Anthropic Principle in Synergetics". Voprosy
Filosofii, No. 7, 1997 (in Russian).)

*Review of the literature.* A. P. LEVICH.

**S. P. KAPITSA.** * "THE COURSE
OF HISTORICAL TIME AND GROWTH OF THE WORLD POPULATION". *The
lecture is devoted to studies of the Earth's population growth.
The demographic data show that, since the advent of man, the
world population is growing proportionally to the squared full
number of people. This indicates that Humanity behaves as a
dynamical system subject to an overall interaction. This
mechanism of self-similar growth incorporates all factors of
biological, technological, economical, social and cultural
nature. The nonlinear system interaction leads to accelerated
growth, which has resulted in the present demographic transition
epoch and stabilization of the world population in the predicted
future. An analysis of the growth shows that the historical
system time has been passing non-uniformly, squeezing as it
approached the transition. This law can be traced back to the
very beginning of Humanity's development. Thus, the Lower
Paleolith epoch has been million years long, the Middle Ages
lasted thousand years, whereas nowadays great changes in the
world happen in a decade. The non-uniform course of historical
time and the synchronism of large stages of world development
have been pointed out by anthropologists and historians, and an
explanation of these phenomena should be sought in the explosive
growth dynamics of the planet's population. (S.P. Kapitsa.
"Phenomenological Theory of the Earth's Population
Growth". Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, 1996, v. 166, No.1.)

*Review of the literature.* I. N. GANSVIND.

**A. A. SHAROV.** * "TIME AND
SEMANTIC CLOSURE". *Formal constructions of
time are models of our subjective perception of causality which
is useful for our activity. The idea of time coincides with the
idea of usefulness, and usefulness coincides with life. Our
models of time expands to the past far beyond the origin of life,
but the idea of time has originated simultaneously with life.
Time is a self-consistent organization and is characterized by a
semantic closure (Pattee 1995). Semantic closure means that the
activity of a system enhances the same activity in the future.
The complexity of life increased via the process of metasystem
transition (Turchin 1977) which adds new hierarchical levels. As
the activity of living systems was becoming more diverse, each
kind of activity obtained its own causality and hence its own
time. The initial proto-time became differentiated; for example,
space became distinguished from time. The ability of organisms to
compare various processes resulted in the idea of average time
for a set of processes. Then, it has been possible to compare the
rates of individual processes. According to biosemiotics, life is
communication and organisms are messages to next generations that
bear information on how to survive and to reproduce. Since time
is intrinsically related to life, it is also closely related to
communication. For example, the inability to send messages to the
past is a fundamental feature of any model of time.

*Announcement of a future lecture "EVOLUTION AND
INVOLUTION". *A. D. ARMAND.

**G. G. MALINETSKY.** * "THE
CONCEPT OF TIME FROM THE STANDPOINT OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICS.
RIVERBEDS AND JOKERS". *Modern nonlinear
dynamics provides a new outlook of motion, development, change,
of the prediction problem and also, apparently, of time itself.
In order to understand how the behaviour strategies change, to
design prognostic computer systems, to construct simple models
for complicated phenomena, to create a bridge from stringent to
soft modelling, one needs something different from Newton's or
Bergson's description of the reality. One needs another approach,
depending on the situation, purpose and observer, on the phase
space domain where the action takes place. This outlook, to be
discussed in the lecture, has been reflected in the recent theory
of riverbeds and jokers. (G.G. Malinetsky. A series of articles
in the book "News in Synergetics. Enigmas of the World of
Non-Equilibrium Structures". Moscow, Nauka, 1996 (in
Russian); G.G. Malinetsky. "Chaos. Structure. Computer
Experiment." Moscow, Nauka, 1997 (in Russian); S.P. Kapitsa,
S.P. Kurdiumov, G.G. Malinetsky. "Synergetics and Prognoses
of the Future" Moscow, Nauka, 1997 (in Russian);G.G.
Malinetsky. "From Homo Sapiens to Homo Ludenus".
Znaniye-Sila, 1998, No. 4 (in Russian).)

*Announcement of a future lecture "AN EXPERIMENT TO
VERIFY THE EXISTENCE OF THE KOZYREV INTERACTION IN NATURAL
PROCESSES".* S. M. KOROTAEV.

**K. V. SIMAKOV.** * "DYNAMIC AND
STATIC TIME". *The time of physics and biology.
The time of geology and archeology. The laws of thermodynamics.
The problem of measuring the static time. (K.V. Simakov. "An
Essay on the History of `Re-Discovery of Time'". Vestnik
RAN, 1995, v. 65, No. 6; K.V. Simakov. "A. Bergson's Theory
of Concrete Time". Vestnik RAN, 1996, v. 66, No. 1; K.V.
Simakov. "Real Time in the Natural-Scientific Picture of the
World". Vestnik RAN, 1997, v. 67, No. 4; K.V. Simakov.
"Measurement of Time". Vestnik RAN, 1998, v. 68, No.
2.)

*"NATURAL-SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO THE EVOLUTION OF
STATE MACRO-INSTITUTES AND THE CIVIL SOCIETY". *Yu. Yu.
FIGATNER.

**A. K. GUTS.** * "THREE
PRINCIPLES OF TIME AND RESTORATION OF THE PAST". *Can
the Past be restored? Poincare and Costa de Beauregard showed
that the past is not restored statistically. This follows from
the Bayes formula. It is a myth that history can do this and,
moreover, that just this is the purpose of history. A historian
is sure that he or she is free for such work. In this
mythological world there live not only historians, but all
people. The fear of death is a cause of such confidence. Three
Principles of Time have been formulated, saying that historians
cannot give us the true textbook of History of any society. 1.
Restoration of the Past can be performed only in the case when
the a priori probabilities are known, i.e. if some knowledge
about the Past is assumed, the knowledge of the Present can only
improve it (the Bayes-Costa de Beauregard Principle). 2. The
smaller is the time period of a historical event under study, the
greater is the historical uncertainty, i.e. there are more
contradictory details (the description uncertainty principle).
This principle acts only provided the Principle of Interaction of
Epochs is realized: 3. The historical uncertainty is greater when
the epoch under study is farther from the present epoch.
Mathematical models of these Principles are discussed.

*Announcement of a future lecture "EVOLUTION OF THE
CONCEPT OF TIME".* V. V. SMOLYANINOV.

**V. V. ARISTOV.** * "INTRODUCING
THE IRREVERSIBLE TIME IN THE RELATIVE STATISTICAL MODEL" .* A
generalization of the relative model proposed previously is
considered. The notion of "a clock equipped by memory"
is introduced. A mathematical formula for the new time interval
is defined. In contrast to the time interval corresponding to the
readings of classical clocks, the value of the new time interval
can be equal to zero ("a backward course of time").
However, the probability of this event is negligible due to
statistical relationships in a system with a large number of
particles. New dynamical equations are discussed. A connection
between the expressions of the model and the postulates of
thermodynamics is discussed. The concept of the arrow of time is
treated on the basis of the model relations. (V.V.Aristov.
"Statistical Model of Clocks in Physical Theory",
Doklady Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1994, V.334. No.2; V.V.Aristov. "A
Relative Statistical Model of Clocks and he Physical Properties
of Time", in: "On the Way to Understanding the Time
Phenomenon: the Constructions of Time in Natural Science. Vol. 1.
Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong-Kong: World Scientific. 1995.
Pp.26-45.)

*"THE LOGARITHMIC LENGTH SCALE AND A MODEL OF NATURAL
EVENTS". *D. L. KIRKO.

**V. V. KASSANDROV.** * "IRREVERSIBLE
FIELD DYNAMICS ON THE BASIS OF THE EXCEPTIONAL ALGEBRA OF
QUATERNIONS". *We show that the generally
adopted field equations, such as the Maxwell, Yang-Mills or
Einstein equations, may be considered as identities following
directly from some primary field dynamics. This predynamics
should be nonlinear, over-defined as well as T- and
P-noninvariant. Quantization of particle characteristics, in
particular, the electric charge, follow then on a purely
classical level. As a model for predynamics, we suggest a natural
nonlinear generalization of the Cauchy-Riemann equations to the
non-commutative quaternion algebra, thus manifesting a revival of
Pithagorean ideas on the crucial role of Numbers in the Universe.
(V.V.Kassandrov, "Algebraic Structure of Space-Time and
Algebrodynamics". Moscow, People's Friendship Univ. Press,
1992 (in Russian); V.V.Kassandrov, "Biquaternionic
Electrodynamics and Weyl-Cartan Geometry of Space-Time",
Gravitation and Cosmology. V.1, No. 3, 1995, pp. 216-222.)

*"THE INFORMATION-MATHEMATICS PARADIGM AND THE ARROWS
OF TIME". *M. I. SHTERENBERG.

**I. M. DMITRIEVSKY.** * "THE
RELIC RADIATION IS CARRIER OF TIME". *There is
no "time" without interaction. And it is not by chance
that N.A. Kozyrev came to the idea of a time flow as a cause of
interactions. But to the ambiguity and weakness of this cause it
is perceived as an imaginary one. Recently (April 1996) I already
spoke of the magneto-resonance mechanism of weak influence and
about the new model of weak interactions in nuclear physics. This
model has allowed one not only to restore the fundamental parity
conservation law, but also to establish a fundamental role of the
cosmic microwave (relic) radiation. According to the hypothesis,
resonant absorption of the neutrino components of the relic
radiation is the reason for "spontaneous"
radioactivity, nuclear fusion in the Sun and other interactions.
This eliminates a contradiction between the viewpoint of N.A.
Kozyrev, that a source of stellar energy is the time flow, and
the one adopted by modern astrophysicists, that its source is
nuclear fusion. According to our hypothesis, these two statements
are not contrary, but rather complementary to each other, if the
time flow is understood as the relic radiation flow. The solar
terrestrial correlations established by A.L. Chizhevskii,
cosmophysical correlations and fluctuations according to S.E.
Shnol et al. are explained by the influence of the appropriate
components (carriers of 4 fundamental interactions) of the relic
radiation. The dynamics of The relic radiation, specified by the
motion of stars and planets which absorb it, determines periodic
changes in the biosphere and noosphere - "the
relic-ecology". The hypothesis under consideration reveals
some properties and solves some problems of time. From the
standpoint of our hypothesis it is also possible to create a new
approach in formulating the causes underlying the fundamental
principles of modern physics: the uncertainty principle and the
relativity principle. (I.Dmitrievskiy, Biophysics, V. 37, No. 4,
1992, pp. 575-580; I. Dmitrievskiy, Consciousness and the
Physical Reality, V. 1, No. 4, 1996 (in Russian),pp. 43-47.)

*"ON THE BOOK BY KARL G. YUNG "SYNCHRONISM"
(Refl-book. Wackler. 1997)". *A. V. MOSCOVSKY.

**M. H. SHULMAN.*** "THE PHYSICAL
NATURE OF TIME".* The conservation laws in
physics. (Noether's theorem. The uncertainty principle and the
tunnel effect. The energy conservation principle and the
"Big Bang" of the Universe.) The Einstein-Friedmann
cosmological model. (The geometric model and physical background.
Basic equations. Collisions.) The physical meaning of the
cosmological constant. (Einstein's arguments and the Poincare's
reasons. The true physical meaning of pressure at rest and its
calculation with Newton's law of gravity.) Revision of the
space-time concept. (The new time concept. Hubble's law. Motion.
The Lorentz transformation. The experimental anisotropy of the
relic background radiation.) Energy, momentum and mass of
particles. (The real existence of de Broglie waves. Mass as a
quantum number. The Lorentz transformation for mass and
geometry.) The Universe as an "energy pump". (Why we
can observe the expansion of the Universe. The mass and energy
increase with time. A correlation with Kozyrev's ideas.) New
cosmology. (A new solution to the Einstein equations. Uniqueness
of the solution. An independent way of deducing the basic
equations. Accounting for the gravitational horizon. Comparison
of the real and gravitational radii of the Universe.) The time
arrow. (The cosmic time. The thermodynamic and psychological time
arrows.) Non-locality and determinism. (Space and time in quantum
mechanics. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. Modification of
the causality principle. Modern experiments.) (M.H.Shulman. On
the Physical Nature of Time. Moscow, Gazprom, 1997 (in Russian).)

*"HAWKING AND PENROSE ON QUANTUM GRAVITY AND THE
NATURE OF SPACE AND TIME" (S. HAWKING AND R. PENROSE. THE
NATURE OF SPACE AND TIME. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS. 1995.)*.
I. N. GANSVIND.

**S. E. SHNOL, E. V. POZHARSKI, V. A. KOLOMBET, I. M.
ZVEREVA, T. A. ZENCHENKO, A. A. KONRADOV.** * "ON
THE DISCRETENESS OF MEASURED TIME SERIES FOR VARIOUS PROCESSES
RESULTING FROM COSMOPHYSICAL FACTORS".* Biochemical
and chemical kinetics, the electrophoretic mobility of cells and
particles, water protons cross-relaxation time, neon lamp
discharge time, earth crust vibrations and the in tensity of
radioactive decay of different isotopes were measured by suitable
methods. As a result of long-term measurements (during 1955-1997)
of fluctuation distributions, the hypothesis on the existence of
universal cosmophysical "force" was put forward. At
each moment this force determines the current spectrum of
discrete admissible states of natural processes (the form of
appropriate histograms). Performing the measurements at different
locations (in Pushchino, Moscow, Leningrad, Tomsk, on the White
Sea coast and aboard in the Pacific and Indian oceans) it was
shown that the form of the appropriate histograms changes there
simultaneously. The "lifetime" and the periodicity of a
specific form seems to exist: in a series of subsequent
histograms, a given histogram is most probably similar to the
nearest neighbours and repeats after 24 hours, 27 days and about
365 days. The regularity of histogram shape dynamic and their
similarity in the measurements of processes different nature at
different geographical locations form the evidence for the
existence of a common cosmophysical (cosmogonic) source of the
phenomena under consideration. (Russian Journal of Chemistry,
1997, No. 3, p.30.)

*Announcement of a future lecture "THE TIME
OPERATOR".* V. G. BUDANOV.

**V. L. TATKO.** * "TIME: INNER
REALITY OR ABSTRACTION? PERSONAL TIME, TIME IN PSYCHOLOGY AND
NEUROSCIENCE". *A crisis in neuroscience at the
end of the century: features, causal nexus, genesis and
consequences. The problem of time in psychology and
neurophysiology. The experience in estimating time intervals,
data and interpretation. Time in natural languages. The verbs
that describe relative motion of objects inside the personal
space ("the moving verbs"). Constants of personality,
inborn and gained in practice. An attempt of personal space
description. J. Gibson's ecological approach. Tatko's
3-dimensional model of time: time-reflection, time-memory and
time-imagination. Restoration of the basic terms in building a
new psychology, creating new definitions. Consciousness,
prognostic activity, intuition. Examples in psycho-pathology:
false recognition, confabulations, anxiety. Personal time
properties: discreteness and locality. How the model works:
spatial dimensions in "The Egyptian Book of the Dead".
The worlds of Plotinus, I.V. Goethe, Thomas Mann, Marcel Proust.
The "Mirror" movie by Andrei Tarkovsky. The conception
of multiple sources of brain timing (the "multiprocessor
metaphor"). Background streams of cons ciousness. Time as an
attribute. The criterion of a "double-positioned"
observer. Claims on possessing the time.